Western australian wildlife management program no. 28 Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District



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Response to Disturbance

Thought to be a disturbance opportunist.  Four of the populations are on narrow road reserves with some

plants growing close to the road edge and seedlings at population 5 appeared to have grown after road

shoulder grading.  Population 4 is located partly in a disused gravel pit.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Maintain liaison with landowners and land managers.

-  Weed control is required at population 1 and needs to be assessed regularly at other populations.

-  All populations should be inspected annually.

-  Control of feral animals (rabbits) in all populations is required.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until fire response has been investigated.

-  Investigate the possibility of land acquisition.

-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.



Research Requirements

-  Further survey on conservation reserves in the area for new populations.

-  Conduct research on the fire response of the species and its susceptibility to Phytophthora species.

References

Crisp (1985, 1995).



35

Daviesia speciosa Crisp

FABACEAE


Beautiful Daviesia

Daviesia speciosa was first collected by C.A. Gardner in 1958 from a single population near Mingenew

(since cleared for agriculture).  A further population was found by C. Chapman prior to 1969 who, after 20

years of study, noted that it flowered every year but did not produce seed.  Further populations have been

found north-east of Eneabba since that date.



D. speciosa is a glaucous, blue leafless shrub to 1 m high by 2 m wide with stiff, erect, prickly stems.  It

has a thick, spreading rootstock from which new plants are produced.  The phyllodes are erect, continuous

with the branchlets with small scale leaves at the base.  The flowers are red and typically pea-shaped.  They

are large, to 2.5 cm long on a long stalk, growing in one or two-flowered clusters on the stems.  They are

nodding.  Pods have not been seen and the plants apparently do not set seed.

Flowering Period:  April-June

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

D. speciosa is currently known from five populations over a range of ca. 40 km, all in the Moora District. 

Occurs in dense low shrubland of species such as



 Acacia, Grevillea, Eremaea, Hakea trifurcata, Hibbertia,

Calothamnus longissimus and Allocasuarina in lateritic loams, usually high in the landscape.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants Condition

1.  N of Garabaldi-Willis

Road.


Ca

Tathra National

Park, Shire Road

Reserve


9.10.1991

385


Healthy, possible

threat from road works

and gravel extraction

2.  N of Eneabba-Carnamah

Road on Touche Road

Ca

Tathra National



Park, Shire Road

Reserve


7.1.1992

100+


Most healthy, some

plants damaged from

firebreak construction

3.  Yandanooka Road E of

Scott Road

Mi

Shire Road



Reserve, Private

18.08.1993

10+

Healthy, possible



threat from road works

and gravel extraction

4.  Scott Road N of

Yandanooka Road

Mi

Private


18.8.1993

50+


Healthy, possible

threat from gravel

extraction

5.  Yandanooka Road W of

Scott Road

Mi

Shire Road



Reserve

18.8.1993

50+

Healthy


Response to Disturbance

36

Plants resprout from suckering rootstock.  At population 2 many plants were observed to have died in

undisturbed vegetation, whereas those in a gravel scrape were all healthy.

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Continue close liaison with landowners/managers and local authorities.

-  Monitor populations regularly to determine their conservation status.

-  Exclude areas where plants are known to occur from road works and gravel extraction.

-  Collect germplasm material for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre

at the Western Australian 

-  Herbarium.



Research Requirements

-  Research on the biology and ecology of this species has been carried out as part of a Masters degree

project through the University of Western Australia.

-  Further surveys should be carried out in areas of suitable habitat.

-  Continue research on pollination biology and population ecology.

-  Conduct research on the susceptibility to Phytophthora species.



References

Crisp (1985, 1995), Hopper 



et al. (1990).

37

Drakaea elastica Lindl.

ORCHIDACEAE

Glossy-leaved Hammer Orchid

Drakaea elastica was named by  Lindley in 1840 from a collection made by James  Drummond.  Due to

confusion over the type specimens it has more recently been known as 



Drakaea jeanensis.  This name was

given to it in 1920 by Rogers who was unaware of Lindley's description and, believing the species to be

new, described it in honour of his wife.  It was not until 1988 that the species was again correctly described

as  


D.†elastica by Jones, in his book Native Orchids of  Australia.  It differs from its closest relative D.

concolor ms in its glossy, light green leaf, its somewhat hairier labellum head, its later flowering period and

its southerly distribution between Cataby and Ruabon.



Flowering Period:  October-early November

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Known from a single population in the Moora District near Cataby.  Also known from 23 small populations

in the Swan and Central Forest Regions, from Perth southwards to Ruabon on the Swan Coastal Plain.

Occurs in deep sandy soil in banksia



 woodland, often in association with Kunzea ericifolia.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

21.  E of Lake Guraga

D

Private


20.8.1993

7

Healthy



Response to Disturbance

Unknown


Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Unknown, but thought to be low.



Management Requirements

-  Continue close liaison with landowners/managers and local authorities.

-  Monitor populations regularly to determine their conservation status.

-  Protect from fire, where possible, during vegetative/flowering phase.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at population.

-  Collect germplasm for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the

Western Australian Herbarium.

Research Requirements

-  Further surveys should be carried out in areas of suitable habitat.



38

-  Continue research on pollination biology and population ecology.



References

Hoffman and Brown (1984, 1992), Hopper 



et al. (1990), Jones (1988), Lindley (1840), Rogers (1920).

39

Drakonorchis drakeoides Hopper & A.P.Brown ms

ORCHIDACEAE

Hinged Dragon Orchid

Drakonorchis drakeoides ms was first collected near Meckering by J. Tonkinson in the 1960s but, due to

the loss of habitat in that area resulting from rising salinity, was not seen again until 1984 when R. Bates

(an orchidologist visiting from South Australia) found a small population near Goomalling.  Subsequent

surveys located several more populations further north.  All populations are small in size and much of their

habitat is under threat through a combination of clearing, rising salinity and grazing by stock.  

D.

drakeoides ms differs from other species in the genus in its small, hanging petals and sepals, its small,

hinged labellum, 5-7 mm long with two lateral anterior slight swellings (not antenna-like as in 



D.

barbarossa ms), its hump-like shoulder calli and its confinement to the margins of salt lakes.  Rare hybrids

of 


D. drakeoides ms x Caladenia varians subsp. exilis ms and D. drakeoides ms x Caladenia longicauda

have been found and will be named X



 Drakodenia ornata and X D. enigma respectively.  D. drakeoides ms

is to be named after the genus 



Drakaea, alluding in particular to its loosely hinged tremulous labellum that

is also a prominent feature of the hammer orchids.

Due to its critically threatened status, an Interim Recovery Plan has been written for this species by CALM

and is currently being implemented.



Flowering Period:  August-September

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Known from five populations in the Moora District in the Watheroo area and a further eight populations in

the Merredin District. Found on the elevated margins of salt lakes between Meckering and Lake Moore,

growing in open seasonally wet sites beneath scrub including species such as 



Melaleuca  uncinata,  M.

cordata, Acacia acuminata and Exocarpos aphyllus.  Also known from a single small population on the

margin of a low granite outcrop north of Beacon.  Soils are usually dark brown sandy loams.



Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

1.

Masons Road



Co

Private


23.8.1988

10, 000+


Healthy, but area

weedy, heavily

grazed and showing

signs of salinity

2.

Wubin-Gunyidi Road



Co

Private


11.9.1988

100+


Healthy

7.

Miling West Road



Mo

Private


25.9.1992

1

Poor, area weedy



and has been

heavily grazed,

population now

fenced


11. Wubin-Gunyidi Road,

W of population 2

Co

Private


20.9.1986

1000+


Healthy

40

12. Launer Road

Co

Nature Reserve



17.8.1993

30+


Poor, very weedy

and showing signs

of salinity


41

Response to Disturbance

-  Fire is thought to be detrimental if it occurs during the growing cycle of the plants.

-  Susceptibility to weed invasion is high with most populations threatened by introduced weeds.

-  Grazing impact is high with several populations known to have been severely depleted through grazing

by domestic stock and rabbits.

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Unknown, but thought to be low.



Management Requirements

-  Continue close liaison with landowners/managers and local authorities.

-  Monitor populations regularly to determine their conservation status.

-  Do not burn during vegetative/flowering phase of the plants (May-November).

-  Control invasive weeds.

-  Monitor rising salinity in some populations and if necessary provide management actions.

-  Ensure that stock grazing is excluded from known populations.

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Collect germplasm for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the

Western Australian Herbarium.



Research Requirements

-  Further surveys should be carried out in areas of suitable habitat north and south of Launer Road.

-  Conduct research on pollination biology and population ecology.

References

Hoffman and Brown (1992), Hopper 



et al. (1990).

42

Dryandra mimica A.S.George

PROTEACEAE

Summer Honeypot

Dryandra mimica is a low shrub with a woody lignotuber and underground stems.  The leaves are linear, up

to 35 cm long, with rounded sinuses between the lobes.  The under surface of the leaf is densely hairy and

has a prominent mid-rib.  The upper surface is hairy in the juvenile leaves but becomes glabrous as they

mature.  The flowers are yellow, with a tuft of long, white hairs at the apex and are grouped in erect flower

heads borne at ground level.  There are few fruits, which are densely hairy, up to 2 cm long and 1 cm wide.

This species is similar to 



D. nivea, but has leaves with rounded rather than V-shaped sinuses.  The floral

arrangement is also different with 



D. nivea having pale brown flowers arising around the margin of the

receptacle leaving a broad central cavity at anthesis, whereas in 



D. mimica the flowers are yellow, arise

evenly and are evenly spaced from the receptacle.  This arrangement is the same as for 



D. vestita which is

the closest relative of 



D. mimica

Flowering Period:  December-January

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

Known from five populations in the Moora District, in an area west of Mogumber over ca. 10 km.  The

species grows in grey-white sand, on lower slopes in banksia open low woodland with a heath understorey.

Associated species include 



Banksia attenuata, Adenanthos cygnorum, Conospermum  acerosum, Nemcia

reticulatum and Dasypogon obliquifolius.  Outside the Moora District the species is known from two

populations, one in the Swan Region and another in the Central Forest Region, north of Busselton.



Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

2. W of Mogumber

VP

Private


28.4 1992

10

Poor, requires fencing



4. W of Mogumber

VP

Shire Road Reserve



28.9.1994

10

Undisturbed



5. W of Mogumber

VP

Shire Road Reserve



28.9.1994

100 est.


Undisturbed

6. W of Mogumber 

VP

Private


21.3.1995

150+


Good, requires

fencing


7. W of Mogumber

VP

Private



21.3.1995

60+


Good, requires

fencing


Response to Disturbance

Population 2 has been heavily grazed and plants are showing signs of stress.  However, this population

appears to be higher in the landscape than most others which occur in fairly damp areas.  Two other

populations, which have had some grazing, appear to be vigorous.



Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

43

Presumed susceptible



44

Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Continue close liaison with landowners/managers and local authorities.

-  Monitor populations regularly to determine their conservation status.

-  Ensure that stock grazing is excluded from known populations.

-  Fence populations 2, 6 and 7.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.


-  Collect seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed Centre at the Western

Australian Herbarium.



Research Requirements

-  Further surveys should be carried out in areas of suitable habitat and populations 6 and 7 should be fully

surveyed.

-  Conduct research on pollination biology and population ecology.

-  Conduct research on the fire response of the species and its susceptibility to Phytophthora species.

References

George (1984c), Kelly



 et al. (1993), Sainsbury (1985).

45

Dryandra serratuloides Meisn. subsp. perissa A.S.George 

PROTEACEAE

Northern Serrate Dryandra

Dryandra serratuloides has been recognised recently as consisting of three subspecies.  D. serratuloides

subsp. 


meganotia occurs from Gnowangerup to Jitarning in the Katanning and Narrogin Districts and was

formerly known as 



Dryandra sp. 45.  D. serratuloides subsp. serratuloides and subsp. perissa are endemic

to the


 Moora District.

D. serratuloides is a low, compact shrub to 1 m tall and 1.2 m in diameter.  The leaves are crowded on

erect branches.  They are 19 cm long, paler on the underside and they are divided almost to the midrib

forming 20-33 linear lanceolate lobes on each side which are flat and quite rigid.  The flowers heads are

axillary, surrounded by lanceolate bracts which are hairless on the back and with white-woolly ciliate

margins, which later become smooth.  The flowers are yellow, ca. 2.5 cm long, with a silky hairy perianth

and a longer, glabrous style which has a narrow, furrowed, darker coloured stigmatic end.



  D. serratuloides

subsp. 


perissa has longer leaves with more lobes than the typical subspecies, and also has longer

inflorescence bracts and a later flowering time





Flowering Period:  August-September

Distribution and Habitat in the Moora District

D. serratuloides subsp. perissa occurs ca. 80 km further north of the typical subspecies over a range of 20

km to the north of Badgingarra.  The species grows in dense low heath sometimes in open low woodland of



Eucalyptus wandoo or E. drummondii or mallee eucalypts in lateritic gravel and brown loam on ridge tops,

slopes or in red-brown clayey sand on lower areas.  Associated species include 



Allocasuarina humilis and

Dryandra species.

Conservation Status

Current:  Declared Rare Flora



Populations Known in the Moora District

Population

Shire

Land Status



Last Survey

No. of Plants

Condition

3.  Boothendarra Hill

D

Nature Reserve



29.2.1992

200+


Undisturbed

4.  N of Badgingarra

Co

National Park, Shire 



Road Reserve 

7.11.1991

1500+

Part of population



recently burnt

5.  N of Badgingarra

Co

Shire Road Reserve, 



Private

14.8.1991

260+

Many plants dead



Response to Disturbance

Plants of the typical subspecies were observed to resprout from the base after the upper branches were

killed by hot, dry conditions and seedlings germinated beneath the dead plants.

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback

Presumed susceptible



46

Management Requirements

-  Ensure that dieback hygiene procedures are carried out at all populations.

-  Monitor populations regularly, particularly those where a large proportion of plants have died,

population 5.

-  Maintain liaison with local government authorities on whose land the populations occur.

-  Ensure that all road reserve populations are marked.

-  Protect from frequent fire, where possible, until research has been conducted on the fire response of the

species.


-  Complete the collection of seed for storage according to the protocols of the Threatened Flora Seed

Centre at the Western Australian Herbarium.



Research Requirements

-  Further survey is required, particularly in conservation areas.

-  Conduct research on the fire response of the species and its susceptibility to Phytophthora species.

References

Bentham (1870), Blackall and Grieve (1988), George (1996), Griffin (1985), Sainsbury (1985).



47

Dryandra serratuloides Meisn. subsp. serratuloides

PROTEACEAE

Southern Serrate Dryandra

D. serratuloides subsp. serratuloides  and subsp. perissa are endemic to the  Moora District.

D. serratuloides is a low, compact shrub to 1 m tall and 1.2 m in diameter.  The leaves are crowded on

erect branches.  They are 5-8 cm long, paler on the underside and are divided almost to the midrib forming

6-12 linear lanceolate lobes on each side which are flat and quite rigid.  The flowers heads are axillary,

surrounded by lanceolate bracts which are hairless on the back and with white-woolly ciliate margins,

which later become smooth.  The flowers are yellow, ca. 2.5 cm long, with a silky hairy perianth and a

longer, glabrous style which has a narrow, furrowed, darker coloured stigmatic end.  



D. serratuloides

subsp. 


serratuloides  has shorter leaves with fewer lobes than subsp. perissa, with shorter inflorescence

bracts and an earlier flowering time.




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