What is the thickness of the ozone layer? 3 millimeters



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YAKUNIY NAZORAT TEST SAVOLLARI, 445-сонли буйруқ ижроси, Tarjima Bolalar nefrol. (2), Microsoft Word Document, Фалсафа, Этика, Эстетика , 5-лаборатория иши янгиси, 5-лаборатория иши янгиси, ish haqi fondi va undan foydalanish hisobi hamda tahlili, iqtisodiyotni modernizatsiyalash sharoitida turizm infratuzilmasiga yonaltirilgan sanoat tovarlari bozorida raqobatni rivojlantirish strategiyasi, 2-mavzu. Asosiy makroiqtisodiy ko’rsatkichlar va ularni hisoblas, ТДИУ СФ ТАҚДИМОТ [Автосохраненный], Grid text, 1-1217-оила куни, Тарих


  1. What is the thickness of the ozone layer?

  1. 3 millimeters

  2. 4-5 centimeters

  3. 10 millimeters

  4. 7 centimeters.

  1. How many kcal of energy does a person receive per day on average?

A. 2400 kcal
B. 1500 kcal
C. 5000 kcal
D. 4500 kcal



  1. . In 1992, Uzbekistan had the world's highest level of carbon dioxide emissions, choose the correct level

  1. 27th

  2. 15th

  3. 7th

  4. 8th

  1. from 1990 to 1999, The area of salinized territories in the Amu Darya basin increased by 57 per cent and what was the percentage of this indication in the Syr Darya basin?

A. 79%
B. 68%
C. 50%
D. 34%



  1. Since when, the water level of the Aral Sea has been declining progressively at the rate of 20 to 90 cm/yr.?

A. 1961
B. 1945
C. 1980
D. 1927



  1. For many years, according to U.N. data, Africa and Asia suffer the most from the lack of access to sufficient ……

  1. clean water

  2. fertilized soil

  3. available area for agriculture.

  4. Food




  1. Water resources of the Republic of Uzbekistan are formed from renewed surface and underground water. If Volumes of natural mean annual flow of the rivers are 123 km3/year including 81.5 km3 in Amu-Darya basin, What is annual flow in Syr-Darya basin?

A. 41.6 km3
B. 83.2 km3
C. 29 km3
D. 55 km3



  1. In 2008, what was the estimated amount of the annual National renewed water resources of Uzbekistan?

A. 11.5 km3/year
B. 30 km3/year
C. 7 km3/year
D. 19 km3/year



  1. Uzbekistan is one of the few countries which are fully self-sufficient in energy resources. It is the second largest of the Caspian gas producers after ……

A. Turkmenistan
B. Tajikistan
C. Kazakhstan
D. Kyrgyzstan



  1. Oil and natural gas comprise …% of the country's energy balance in Uzbekistan

  1. 97%

B. 68%
C. 33%
D. 21%



  1. what is the percentage of primary energy deriving from Coal and peat ?

A. 2.5%
B. 9%
C. 13%
D. 5%



  1. Find the true description of “Exclusivity” in a well-functioning market economy

A. All benefits and costs accrued as a result of owning and using the resources should accrue to the owner, and only to the owner, either directly or indirectly by sale to others.
B. All property rights should be transferable from one owner to another in a voluntary exchange
C. Property rights should be secure from involuntary seizure or encroachment by others
D. None of them



  1. What is “negative externality” in Market Allocation?

  1. It is one that creates side effects that could be harmful to either the general public directly or through the environment.

  2. It is an unpaid benefit that extends beyond those directly initiating the activity.

  3. It is emission allowances which can be traded, bought or sold, or banked for future use

  4. None of them




  1. What is “positive externality” in Market Allocation?

  1. It is one that creates side effects that could be harmful to either the general public directly or through the environment.

  2. It is an unpaid benefit that extends beyond those directly initiating the activity.

  3. It is emission allowances which can be traded, bought or sold, or banked for future use

  4. None of them




  1. The cap and trade approach…

A. sets a maximum amount of emissions for a group of sources over a specific time period
B. sets a minimum amount of emissions for a group of sources over a specific time period
C. leave the decision of how to deal with pollution to individual sources by assessing a fee or "tax" on the amount of pollution that is generated.
D. supports taxes to discourage activities that created harmful effects and subsidies for those creating benefits to further encourage those activities.
16. Individual transferable quotas are…..
A. a market-based solution that is often used to manage fisheries.
B. a market-based solution that is often used to manage farming
C. a market-based solution that is often used to manage to reduce pollution in industrial active zones
D. a market-based solution that is often used to manage to improve irrigation in high quality soil areas.
17. producer’s surplus is related to …
A. Profits
B. Debts
C. interest on profit
D. total variable cost
18.what is another term of long-run competitive equilibrium called?
A. Scarcity rent
B. marginal cost
C. variable cost
D. total revenue

19. Who was the first economist to recognize the existence of scarcity rent?


A. Adam Smith
B. David Ricardo
C. Karl Marks
D. Irving Fisher
20. Arthur Pigou, a British economist best known for his work in…
A. economics in sustainable scale
B. Economics on fair distribution,
C. Economics in efficient allocation
D. Economics in Welfare


21. which of following broad class of methods can assess the economic value of environmental amenities and dis-amenities in the absence of explicit markets:



  1. revealed preference methods

  2. Behavioural preference methods

  3. stated preference methods.

  4. All of them

22. The travel cost model…




A. determines the value that consumers hold for an environmental good by observing their purchase of goods in the market that directly (or indirectly) relate to environmental quality.
B. estimates the value of recreational benefits generated by ecosystems.
C. refers to a family of techniques which use individual respondents' statements about their preferences in a set of transport options to estimate utility functions.
D. None of them
23. stated preference methods are used to…
A. determine the value that consumers hold for an environmental good by observing their purchase of goods in the market that directly (or indirectly) relate to environmental quality.
B. estimate the value of recreational benefits generated by ecosystems.
C. refer to a family of techniques which use individual respondents' statements about their preferences in a set of transport options to estimate utility functions.
D. None of them

24. What is the purpose of Hedonic property model





  1. To capture a customer's willingness to sell for what they perceive are environmental differences that add or detract from the intrinsic value of an asset or property.

  2. To introduce models involving systems of demand equations in which demand could be simultaneously estimated for multiple sites

  3. to identify the internal and external factors and characteristics that affect an item's price in the market.

  4. None of them

25. Find the model which related to the value of production


A. Hedonic property models
B. Preference Methods
C. Travel cost
D. Hedonic wage models

26. Find the model which related to the value of life and a safe environment


A. Hedonic property models
B. Travel cost model
C. Preference Methods
D. Hedonic wage models

27. Find the model which related to the value of recreation services.


A. Hedonic wage models
B. Preference Methods
C. Hedonic property models
D. Travel cost model

28. Find the model which comprises to environmental debt


A. Averting behavior model
B. Hedonic wage models
C. Hedonic property models
D. Preference Methods

29. If people incur private expenditures to avoid the damages from pollution at least a partial estimate of the value of these damages called


A. Advertising expenditure
B. Pollution shrinking welfare
C. environmental debts
D. A and B
30. Which approach can only estimate the value of changes in risks that workers perceive accurately?
A. Hedonic wage models
B. Hedonic property models
C. Travel cost model
D. A and C

31. Contingent Valuation Attitudinal methods use carefully designed surveys that ask consumers about:


A. how much they value environmental goods and services


B. how much they think of avoidance of environmental catastrophe
C. how much they care about funding for decontaminating lands
D. None of them

32. Market or opportunity cost pricing can be used when…


A. there are tangible products to measure, such as the amount of fish caught in a lake.
B. there is necessity to calculate approximate amount of product which does not exist.
C. Both A and B answers are true
D. None of them

33. what is an average amount of food that a human being consumes per year?


A.800 kg
B. 1000kg
C. 300-500kg
D. 700kg

34. How many people die from starvation each year?


A. 10mln
B.30 mln
C. 50 mln
D.100 mln

35. what is the percentage of people on earth that suffer from food inadequacy?


A. 3%
B. 5%
C. 8%
D. 11%

36. The first part of the Red Data Book of Uzbekistan, dedicated to vertebrates, includes 63 species of animals, and when was it published?


A. 1983 yr.
B. 1966 yr.
C.1975 yr.
D. 1990 yr.
37. How many species of endangered plants are mentioned in the 1984 edition of the Red Book of Uzbekistan?
A. 150 types
B. 163 types
C. 145 types
D. 180 types

38. What is the average annual rate of climate change?


A. 0.5 Celsius
B. 0.8 Celsius
C. 1 Celsius
D. 1.5 Celsius

39. Which of the following is an environmental problem?


A. Climate change, air pollution, a dramatic increase in the world's population, deforestation
B. Climate change, air pollution, terrorism, deforestation, global warming.
C. Climate change, air pollution, Corruption, deforestation.
D. All of them

40. Which of the three is described by economist R. Passat in Sustainable Development?


A. Economy, environment and social sphere
B. Economy, health and utilities
c. Environment, social sphere and natural sphere
D. None of them
41. What are biological resources?
A. Humans, animals and plants
B. Plants, animals and microorganisms
C. Solar, water and land resources
D. All of them

42. what are reducens?


A. (microorganisms, fungi and animals) -organisms that provide biological matter and energy in nature
B. organisms that process living organic matter
C. organisms that produce organic matter
D. None of them

43. Consuments are?


A. (microorganisms, fungi and animals) -organisms that provide biological matter and energy in nature.
B. organisms that process living organic matter
C. organisms that produce organic matter
D. All of them

44. Human economic activity, especially in the production of industrial products, generates large amounts of waste. They are divided into 3 main groups according to their sources of origin:


A. production wastes, consumer waste, recycling waste
B. natural waste, consumer waste, industrial waste.
C. artificial waste, biological waste, recycling waste.
D. A and c

45. How many kcal of energy should a person consume in a day at least ?


A. 1500 kcal (40 g protein)
B. 2400 kcal (40-60 g protein)
C. 1600 kcal (50 g protein)
D. 2200 kcal (45 – 50 g protein)

46. What is the percentage of fresh water of the total volume of water on earth?





  1. 2.5-3%

B. 1%
C. 4%
D. 6%
47. what is the total estimated volume of water on earth?
A. 1.4 billion km/square
B. 2 billion km/square
C. 1.7 billion km/square
D. 1.9 billion km/square

48. According to the UN Environment Program (2002), what is the percentage of worlds readily available freshwater resources is underwater?


A. 70%
B. 80%
C. 90%
D. 60%

49. In Uzbekistan Volumes of natural mean annual flow of the rivers are … m3/year


A. 120
B. 123
C. 130
D. 134

50. “fossil” water are not renewable. Because,…


A. it comes from Deep layers of groundwater and often much older
B. it comes from base surface of the ground
C. it contains oxygen
D. B and C
1. . Environmental resources are...

J: c. resources provided by nature that cannot be allocated unit by unit


2. Sustainable development means maximizing


J:. d. none of the above

3. According to Pimentel and Pimentel, an important adverse side effect of the Green Revolution


is
J: a. the harmful impact of pesticides
4. According to the United Nations, the world’s major environmental problems include:

J:e. all of the above


5. Which of the following is a major health consequence of environmental degradation, especially in developing countries?


J: c. lack of clean water


6. According to mainstream economist Theodore Panayotou, pollution is excessive when


a. air and water are dirty.

J: b. firms are not forced to internalize all social costs.


7. A water shortage results from a price


J: a. corresponding to an excess demand for water


8. Most scientists think that the major contributors to the increase in global atmospheric temperature in the last seventy years have been


J: c. factories and vehicles


9. According to economists, which of the following areas is expected to be most vulnerable to a continuation of global warming and related climate changes throughout the 21st century?


J:d. the South

10. Which of the following group of countries now emits the majority of greenhouse gases?


J:d. US, Canada, Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Japan.

11. Why do many economists advocate substituting a tax on fossil fuels for income taxes in the United States? a. the poor would pay a lower percentage of their income in taxes


+++ b. the tax would reduce incentives to degrade the environment
c. the tax burden would shift toward those protecting the environment
d. none of the answers above is true

12. Which of the following is not an example of the destruction of nature’s “free services” consumed by the human economy?


a. destruction of the honeybee’s ecosystem
b. forest fires in Indonesia and Malaysia
+++c. increasing buffer areas of native vegetation
d. reducing the planet’s number of species
e. replacing a forest watershed with a plantation

13. Biotechnology is the application of


a. biology to human use during the period before 1950
b. biology to human use during the period since 1950
+++c. both a and b are correct
d. none of the above is correct

14. Genetic engineering refers to


a. in-vitro multiplication or regeneration of plant material in the laboratory
+++++b. the insertion of specific “traits” artificially into other organisms
c. the use of identifying markers associated with specific characteristics
d. all of the above are correct e. only a and c are correct

15. The following is true about chronic hunger in the world:


++++a. About 1 billion people suffer from chronic hunger and most of these people are engaged in farm work
b. About 1 billion people suffer from chronic hunger and most of these people live in urban areas
c. About 3 billion people suffer from chronic hunger and most of these people are engaged in farm work
d. About 3 billion people suffer from chronic hunger and most of these people live in urban areas
e. None of the above statements is correct

16. For Daly, the limiting factor in economic development is


a. entrepreneurship
b. human skills
+++c. natural capital
d. physical capital

17. A major limit on the likelihood of attaining multilateral (international) agreements on implementing solutions to global warming and ozone depletion is


a. free riding by nations
b. lack of enforcement
c. poverty in poor countries
d. none of the above is correct
++++e. both a and b are correct

18. The least-cost method of abating greenhouse gases internationally is through


a. limiting emissions to 1990 levels
b. stabilizing average temperatures at 1990 levels
++++c. tradeable emission permits
d. data are lacking to choose between these three alternatives

19. Which of the following will increase the US’s GNP?


a. Cleaning up an oil spill
b. Purifying water
c. Shifting from bicycles to autos
+++++d. All of the above are correct
e. None of the above is correct

20. Which of the following scholars contends that “Nature is our standard.”


a. Ronald Coase
b. Martin Feldstein
c. Wes Jackson
d. Theodore Panayotou
+++++e. Robert Solow

21. Erin Brockovich’s view of environmental policy is that


+++ a. society should regulate and enforce regulations to reduce pollution
b. the state should subsidize expensive energy
c. the state should tax producers to pay full social cost
d. both b and c are correct
e. none of the above is correct

22. According to Panayotou, the way to prevent endangering species uneconomically is to


++++a. equate their price and scarcity
b. prevent economic growth
c. provide open access to the species
d. subsidize the use of the species
e. none of the above is correct

23. Which of the following policies does Panayatou support?


a. Cease subsidizing use of a scarce resource
b. Define user rights to a resource
c. Firms must internalize spillovers
d. Prevent open access to common resources
++++e. All of the above are correct

24. 4. The biosphere, like any ecosystem, is:


a) a closed system
++++b) open system;
c) a completely autonomous system;
d) a completely independent system.

25. The main energy source for life on Earth is:


a) the internal energy of the Earth;
b) cosmic radiation;
c) wind and water energy;
++++d) solar energy.

26. Which of the following factors contributed to the dramatic change in world population growth from 1900-50 to 1950-2000?


a. a fall in both birth and death rates, but a faster decrease in birth rate than in death rate
+++ b. a fall in both birth and death rates, but a faster decrease in death rate than in birth rate
c. an increase in birth rate and a fall in death rate
d. an increase in both birth and death rates, but a faster increase in birth rate

27. The demographic transition is


++++ a. the period between preindustrial and modern equality of crude birth and death rates
b. the period when both crude birth and death rates rise
c. the period when crude birth and death rates are equal
d. both a and c are correct
e. none of the above is correct

28. Which of the following are not social costs to be added to the private cost of a gasoline- powered vehicles? a. carbon emissions


b. ozone pollution
c. resource depletion
d. traffic jams
+++e. none of the above

29. One way of using market forces to make the social costs of using an automobile equal to social benefits in highly-congested cities such as Singapore is


a. making gasoline expensive by raising the tax
b. making public transportation free
c. requiring an expensive license to use an automobile
++++d. all of the above are correct
e. none of the above are correct
30. In Loma Alta, Ecuador, researchers convinced local community members that deforestation had
a. increased soil erosion.
b. reduced cattle production .
c. reduced the water supply.
d. both a and b are correct.
+++ e. both a and c are correct.
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