Wongan featherflower

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Rebecca Evans & Andrew Brown 


Photograph: B. Wells 


May 2001 


Department of Conservation and Land Management 

Western Australian Threatened Species and Communities Unit (WATSCU) 

PO Box 51, Wanneroo, WA 6946 






Interim Recovery Plan for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 




Interim Recovery Plans (IRPs) are developed within the framework laid down in Department of Conservation and Land 

Management (CALM) Policy Statements Nos. 44 and 50. 


IRPs outline the recovery actions that are required to urgently address those threatening processes most affecting the 

ongoing survival of threatened taxa or ecological communities, and begin the recovery process. 


CALM is committed to ensuring that Critically Endangered taxa are conserved through the preparation and implementation 

of Recovery Plans or Interim Recovery Plans and by ensuring that conservation action commences as soon as possible and 

always within one year of endorsement of that rank by the Minister. 


This Interim Recovery Plan will operate from May 2001 to April 2004 but will remain in force until withdrawn or replaced. 

It is intended that, if the taxon is still ranked Critically Endangered, this IRP will be replaced by a full Recovery Plan after 

three years. 


This IRP was approved by the Director of Nature Conservation on 27 June 2001. The provision of funds identified in this 

Interim Recovery Plan is dependent on budgetary and other constraints affecting CALM, as well as the need to address 

other priorities. 


Information in this IRP was accurate at May 2001. 




Interim Recovery Plan for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 




Scientific Name: Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 

Common Name: Wongan Featherflower 

Family: Myrtaceae 

Flowering Period: June to October 

CALM Region: Wheatbelt 


CALM District: Merredin 

Shire: Wongan-Ballidu 

Recovery Team: Merredin District Threatened Flora 

Recovery Team (MDTFRT) 


Illustrations and/or further information: Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds) (1998) Western 

Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia; Gardner, C. A. and 

George, A. S. (1963) Eight New Plants from Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 46: 129-

138; George, A.S. (1991) New combinations and typifications in Verticordia (Myrtaceae: Chamelaucieae). Nuytsia 7 (3): 



Current status: Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa was declared as Rare Flora in October 1996 and ranked as 

Critically Endangered (CR) in November 1998. It currently meets World Conservation Union (IUCN 1994) Red List 

Category ‘CR’ under criteria B1+2c, as there is a single population of 1206 mature individuals with continuing habitat 



Threats include rabbit activity, weeds and vehicle access. There are also possible long-term threats associated 

with lack of genetic diversity.  


Habitat requirements: Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa is endemic to Western Australia where it is confined to a 

single granite outcrop east of Wongan Hills, growing in association with Kunzea, Wurmbea sp., Borya sphaerocephala

Hakea petiolarisCheilanthes sp., Drosera sp., Gastrolobium callistachys, Mosses, Liverworts, and Lichens. 


Critical habitat: The critical habitat for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa comprises the area of occupancy of the 

known population, areas within 200 metres of the known population, corridors of vegetation that link subpopulations and 

additional occurrences of suitable habitat that do not currently contain the subspecies. 


Existing Recovery Actions

The following recovery actions have been or are currently being implemented -  

1.  Land managers have been made aware of the subspecies and its location.  

2.  Staff from the Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) have collected over 2,000 seeds from the population and have 

stored them at -18ºC. Initial testing showed a viability rate of between 32% and 72%. 

3.  The fence separating the reserve from private land was repaired and partly replaced in 1999 to stop stock grazing on 

the plants. 

4.  An A4 sized poster, which provides a description of the subspecies, and information about threats and recovery 

actions, has been produced. 

5.  A research proposal that includes Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa and five other Verticordia species has been 

produced which, once implemented, will investigate aspects of their biology and ecology. 

6.  Staff from CALM's Merredin District Office regularly monitor the population. 

7.  The MDTFRT is overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will include it in its annual report to CALM’s 

Corporate Executive. 


IRP Objective: The objective of this Interim Recovery Plan is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance in situ 

populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild. 


Recovery criteria 


Criterion for success: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have increased. 

Criterion for failure: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have decreased. 


Recovery actions 

1.  Coordinate recovery actions. 

7.  Develop and implement a fire management strategy. 

2.  Liaise with relevant land managers. 

8.  Monitor population. 

3.  Install Declared Rare Flora markers and restrict access. 

9.  Conduct further surveys. 

4.  Write and implement a rabbit control strategy. 

10.  Promote awareness. 

5.  Repair fence. 

11.  Write a full Recovery Plan. 

6.  Undertake weed control. 





Interim Recovery Plan for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 







S. Elliott made the first known collection of Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa (now housed at the Western 

Australian Herbarium) in 1955, however, the type specimen was not collected until 1961 when W. H. Butler collected it 

from the same area. A further ten collections were made between 1979 and 1995. In 1999 A. S. George divided the species 

into two subspecies (Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa and V. staminosa subsp. cylindracea).  He subsequently 

further divided subsp. cylindracea into two varieties, (var. cylindracea and var. erecta) (Brown, et. al., 1998)). All taxa are 

confined to granite outcrops in the wheatbelt of Western Australia and are declared as rare flora. 


Both  Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa and Verticordia staminosa subsp. cylindracea var. cylindracea,  are in 

cultivation in eastern Australia (personal communication, E. George






Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa is a small spreading, much branched shrub with hairy branchlets and very narrow, 

more or less stalkless leaves, up to 1.5 cm long. The flowers are about 5 mm long. Sterile stamens do not protrude from the 

flower and the style is not hairy. It has 10 long protruding stamens that are bright red with yellow tips. Below these are 

yellow, feathery sepals and two bright red persistent bracts. Wongan Featherflower differs from Granite Featherflower (V. 

staminosa subsp. cylindracea) in having larger flowers, a shorter staminal tube, longer stamens, and staminodes that are 

outside the staminal tube, rather than inserted between the staminal filaments (Gardner & George, 1963). 


Distribution and habitat 


It is not known whether the rarity of Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa is due to the destruction of suitable habitat or 

if is has always been naturally rare. It is known from a single granite outcrop east of Wongan Hills where it grows in 

association with Kunzea pulchella, Wurmbea sp., Borya sphaerocephalaHakea petiolarisCheilanthes sp., Drosera sp., 

Gastrolobium callistachys, mosses, liverworts and lichens. 


Critical habitat 


Critical habitat is habitat identified as being critical to the survival of a listed threatened species or listed threatened 

ecological community. Habitat is defined as the biophysical medium or media occupied (continuously, periodically or 

occasionally) by an organism or group of organisms or once occupied (continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an 

organism, or group of organisms, and into which organisms of that kind that the potential to be reintroduced. (Environment 

Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act)). 


The critical habitat for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa comprises: 



the area of occupancy of the known population, 

•  areas of similar habitat ie. vegetation of Kunzea pulchella over a lithic complex, within 200 metres of the known 

population (these provide potential habitat for natural recruitment), 

•  corridors of remnant vegetation that link populations (these are necessary to allow pollinators to move between 


•  additional occurrences of similar habitat ie. vegetation of Kunzea pulchella over a lithic complex that do not currently 

contain the subspecies (these are possible translocation sites). 


Biology and ecology 


Little is known about the biology and ecology of Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa and what is known is limited to 

field observations. CALM is currently carrying out a study in order to obtain more information. 


Verticordia species, including V. staminosa subsp. staminosa, are most commonly propagated from cuttings and are rarely 

grown from seed. There is commonly only one seed per flower and seed set is generally low (less than 51%) but highly 

variable, from both plant to plant and from location to location (Cochrane & McChesney 1995).  


The fire or disturbance response of Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa is not known, however, Verticordia species are 

thought to be killed by fire and regenerate from soil-stored seed.  




 Elizabeth George, Local enthusiast and Volunteer WA Herbarium. 




Interim Recovery Plan for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 


Verticordia species are not generally susceptible to Phytophthora. However, it has been isolated from several species 

(personal communication, M. Grant


). Further research is required to determine the susceptibility of Verticordia staminosa 

subsp. staminosa to this pathogen. 




Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa was declared as Rare Flora in October 1996 and ranked as Critically Endangered 

(CR) in November 1998. It currently meets World Conservation Union (IUCN 1994) Red List Category ‘CR’ under criteria 

B1+2c, as there is a single population of 1206 mature individuals with continuing habitat degradation.


Threats include 

rabbit activity, weeds and vehicle access. There are also possible long-term threats associated with lack of genetic diversity. 


•  Inappropriate fire regimes would adversely affect the long-term viability of the population, as it is likely to kill 

mature plants. If frequent fire occurs it would deplete the soil seed-bank before juvenile plants reach maturity. 


Weed invasion is a threat. Weeds appear to be competing directly with Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa in the 

shallow soil pockets in which it grows. Weeds not only compete for nutrients, water and light, and are detrimental to 

recruitment, but also exacerbate grazing pressure and increase the fire hazard.  



•  Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and to a smaller extent kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) are having a major impact 

on the population through soil disturbance during warren construction, increased nutrient levels from droppings and 

the introduction of weeds. Grazing may also be effecting the establishment of seedlings. 


•  Grazing by sheep has damaged some Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa plants and other nearby native species, 

and has increased the threat of weeds. Soil compaction is also evident in some places. Sheep have been able to enter 

the reserve a damaged fence between the reserve and adjacent farmland.  


•  Vehicles are damaging plants along an access track. 


Summary of population information and threats 


Pop. No. & 


Land Status 

No. plants/Year  Condition 


1. Wongan Hills 

Water Reserve  1999 


Plants are mostly 

healthy but the 

habitat is disturbed. 

Rabbit and kangaroo activity, 

weeds, vehicles, low genetic 



Guide for decision-makers 


Section 1 provides details of current and possible future threats. Development in the immediate vicinity of the population or 

within the defined critical habitat of Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa will require assessment. Developments should 

not be approved unless the proponents can demonstrate that they will not have a negative impact on the subspecies, and its 

habitat or potential habitat or have the potential to spread or amplify dieback disease. 







The objective of this Interim Recovery Plan is to abate identified threats and maintain and/or enhance in situ populations to 

ensure the long-term preservation of the taxon in the wild. 


Criterion for success: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have increased. 

Criterion for failure: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have decreased. 





Existing recovery actions 


The land managers (Water Corporation) have been made aware of the subspecies and its location. The notification detailed 

the Declared Rare status of the taxon and associated legal responsibilities. 




 Malcolm Grant - CALM, Albany District 




Interim Recovery Plan for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 


Approximately 2,250 seeds were collected from 35 plants in October and November 1995 and are stored in CALM’s 

Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC) at -18

°C. Staff of the TFSC test the viability of the seed immediately, after one year 

in storage and after five years. The initial germination rate of Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa was found to be 

65%, and was 32% after one year in storage. In October 1996, a further 700 seeds were collected from 50 plants with an 

initial germination rate of 73%, and 100% after one year in storage (personal communication, C. Cochrane




The fence between the reserve and private land was repaired in 1999 to prevent stock access. 


An A4 sized poster that provides a description of the subspecies and information about threats and recovery actions, has 

been produced. It is hoped that the poster will result in the discovery of new populations. 


A research proposal on six threatened Verticordia species, including Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa, has been 

developed by Dr David Coates (CALMScience Division). The project is underway and is investigating: 


1. Pollination 


2.  Soil seed bank dynamics, recruitment and seedling survival 

3.  Phenology and seasonal growth 

4. Population 


5.  Impact and control of weeds 

6.  Ex situ propagation and germplasm storage 

7. Experimental 



Staff from CALM's Merredin District Office regularly monitor the population. 


The Merredin District Threatened Flora Recovery Team (MDTFRT) is overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will 

include it in its annual report to CALM’s Corporate Executive. 


Future recovery actions 


Where populations occur on lands other than those managed by CALM, permission has been or will be sought from the 

appropriate land managers prior to recovery actions being undertaken. 


1.  Coordinate recovery actions 


The MDTFRT will oversee the implementation of recovery actions for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa and will 

include progress information in its annual report to CALM's Corporate Executive and funding bodies. 



Coordinate recovery actions 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$1,000 per year 


2.  Liaise with relevant land managers 


Staff from CALM's Merredin District will continue to liaise with the Water Corporation, Wongan Hills Shire and adjacent 

landowners to ensure the population is not damaged or destroyed accidentally. 



Liaise with relevant land managers 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$800 per year 


3.  Install Declared Rare Flora markers and restrict access 


DRF markers have not previously been thought necessary because it was thought that there was no public access into the 

water reserve, however, several plants have been damaged from vehicles turning around on an access track. CALM will 

install DRF markers indicating that the area is environmentally sensitive and that all vehicles must remain on the 

designated track.  


Access will also be restricted to those people managing the reserve. It appears that current access into the reserve is 

available to a large number of unauthorized people. The locks on the access gate need to be changed and keys re-issued to 

relevant persons.  




 Anne Cochrane, Manager Threatened Flora Seed Centre 




Interim Recovery Plan for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 



Install DRF markers and restrict access 


CALM (Merredin District) and the Water Corporation through the MDTFRT 


$1,600 in the first year 


4.  Write and implement a rabbit control strategy 


The reserve is currently used as a water supply for the Shire of Wongan Hills. For this reason the use of 1080 to control 

rabbits may not be deemed appropriate. CALM will develop and implement a rabbit control strategy in consultation with 

the Water Corporation, Wongan Hills Shire and adjacent land owners. 



Write and implement a rabbit control strategy 


CALM (Merredin District) adjacent land managers, Water Corporation, Wongan Hills  



Shire, through the MDTFRT 


$1,300 in the first year and $1,900 in the second and third years 


5. Repair 



The fence that separates the reserve from adjoining farmland is in disrepair and there is evidence that sheep have been able 

to get through it into the area of the population. While some parts of the fence have been recently replaced, further 

maintenance is required. CALM will, in consultation with the Water Corporation, Wongan Hills Shire and adjacent land 

owners, repair and maintain the fence.  


Action: Repair 



CALM (Merredin District), adjacent land managers, Water Corporation, Wongan Hills Shire 

through the MDTFRT 


$3,700 in the first year 


6.  Undertake weed control 


Weeds are a major threat as they readily germinate in the soil pockets in which Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 

grows. The following actions will be implemented:  


1.  Appropriate herbicides will be selected after determining which weeds are present. 

2.  Invasive weeds will be controlled by hand removal or spot spraying around Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 

plants when weeds first emerge. 

3.  Weed control will be scheduled to coincide with spraying of other threatened flora populations within the district. 


The tolerance of associated native plant species to herbicides is not known and weed control programs will be undertaken 

in conjunction with research. 



Undertake weed control  


CALM (Moora District, CALMScience) through the MDTFRT 


$1,800 per year 


7.  Develop and implement a fire management strategy 


Fire kills adult and, following such an event, regeneration will be largely from soil-stored seed. Frequent fire may prevent 

the accumulation of sufficient soil stored seed for the long-term conservation of the population. Fire should therefore be 

prevented from occurring in this area, at least in the short term.  


A fire management strategy based on the one developed by Central Forest Region, which defines fire control measures, and 

fire frequency and timing will be developed in consultation with relevant authorities and land managers. 



Develop and implement a fire management strategy 


CALM (Merredin District), Water Corporation, Wongan Hills Shire and adjacent land mangers 

through the MDTFRT 


$1,700 in the first year, and $1,200 in subsequent years 


8. Monitor 



Monitoring of factors such as weed invasion, habitat degradation, and population stability (expansion or decline), pollinator 

activity, seed production, recruitment, and longevity are essential. The population will be monitored annually. 





Interim Recovery Plan for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 



Monitor population 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$600 per year 


9.  Conduct further surveys 


Surveys in areas of suitable habitat (granite outcrops) will be conducted during the subspecies’ flowering period (June to 




Conduct further surveys 


CALM (Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$2,000 per year 


10. Promote 



The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for the long-term protection of Verticordia staminosa subsp. 

staminosa in the wild will be promoted to the public through the local print and electronic media and through poster 

displays. An information sheet that includes a description of the plant, its habitat type, threats and management actions has 

been produced and circulated. Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will be encouraged. 


Action: Promote 



CALM (Merredin District, Corporate Relations) through the MDTFRT 


$900 in the second year 


11.  Write a full Recovery Plan 


At the end of the third-year of this IRP, the need for further recovery will be assessed. If Verticordia staminosa subsp. 

staminosa is still ranked Critically Endangered at that time a full Recovery Plan will be developed that prescribes actions 

required for the long-term recovery of the species. 



Write a full Recovery Plan 


CALM (WATSCU, Merredin District) through the MDTFRT 


$16,600 in the final year 





This Interim Recovery Plan will operate from May 2001 to April 2004 but will remain in force until withdrawn or replaced. 

It is intended that, if the taxon is still ranked Critically Endangered, this IRP will be replaced by a full Recovery Plan after 

three years. 




The following people have provided assistance and advice in the preparation of this Interim Recovery Plan: 


Alex Agafonoff 

Former Flora Conservation Officer, CALM Merredin District 

Brett Beecham 

Regional Ecologist, CALM Wheatbelt Region 

Karen Bettink 

Flora Conservation Officer, CALM Merredin District 

Anne Cochrane 

Manager, CALM Threatened Flora Seed Centre, CALMScience Division 

Digby Growns 

Research Officer, Agriculture WA 

Elizabeth George 

Volunteer and Verticordia expert, WA Herbarium 

Moyle Family  

Private enthusiasts, Mandurah 

Robyn Phillimore 

Project Officer, Western Australian Threatened Species and Communities Unit, Nature 

Conservation Division, CALM 

Paul Roberts 

District Manager, CALM Merredin District 

Colin Yates 

Research Ecologist, CALMScience Division 


We would like to thank the staff of CALM’s W.A. Herbarium for providing access to Herbarium databases and specimen 

information, and CALM's Wildlife Branch for their extensive assistance. 




Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds). (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of 

Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 




Interim Recovery Plan for Verticordia staminosa subsp. staminosa 


CALM (1992) Policy Statement No. 44 Wildlife Management Programs. Department of Conservation and Land 

Management, Western Australia. 

CALM (1994) Policy Statement No. 50 Setting Priorities for the Conservation of Western Australia’s Threatened Flora 

and Fauna. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

Cochrane, A. and McChesney, C. (1995) Verticordia Seed. Australian Plants 18 (145): 206-207. 

Elliot, W.R. and Jones, D.L. (1982) Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation (Vol 2). Lothian 

Publishing Co., Melbourne. 

Gardner, C. A. and George, A. S. (1963) Eight New Plants from Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western 

Australia 46: 129-138. 

George, A.S. (1991) New combinations and typifications in Verticordia (Myrtaceae: Chamelaucieae). Nuytsia 7 (3): 231-


Hopper, S., Van Leeuwen, S., Brown, A., and Patrick, S. (1990) Western Australia’s Endangered Flora. Department of 

Conservation and Land Management, Perth. 

Western Australian Herbarium (1998) FloraBase - Information on the Western Australian Flora. Department of 

Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/  

World Conservation Union (1994) IUCN red list categories prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission, as 

approved by the 40th meeting of the IUCN Council. Gland, Switzerland. 





Gardner, C. A. and George, A. S. (1963) Eight New Plants from Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western 

Australia 46: 129-138. 


A spreading, much-branched shrub. Branches setose, at length glabrous. Leaves crowded towards the ends of the branches, 

linear-terete, 7-14 mm long, on short, thick, setose bases which remain on the branch for some time after the leaves have 

fallen but at length are deciduous. Flowers yellow, on slender glandular pedicels in the upper axils. Bracteoles large, 5-6 

mm long, ovate, scarious, red-brown, persistent for some time but deciduous with the flowers. Calyx-tube turbinate, 1.5-2 

mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, 10-ribbed, glabrous; lobes orbicular, deeply divided into 5-7 pectinate-ciliate lobes, the whole 5 

mm long. Petals ovate, divided into 5-7 subulate lobes, 5 mm long. Stamens much exceeding the petals, united for about 

1/3 of their length in a tube, the free portion of the filaments flat; staminodes subulate, inserted on the outside of the tube; 

anthers basifixed, 2-porose, the dorsal connective gland prominent. Style as long as the stamens (9-10 mm), stigma small, 

cushion-shaped. Ovary with 2 ovules.  


A.S. George, New combinations and typifications in Verticordia (Myrtaceae: Chamelaucieae), (1991). 


Two subspecies and two further varieties of Verticordia staminosa are recognised in the following key. 



Stamens 9-12 mm long, united for 2-3 mm; staminodes inserted on outside of tube,  

the free part c. 1.5 mm long, subulate; sepals 7 mm long  

subsp. staminosa 


Stamens 6-7.5 mm long, united for 3 mm; staminodes inserted between stamens, 

 the free part 1 mm long, obtuse, sepals 5-6 mm long  

subsp. cylindracea A.S. George 



Shrub with widely spreading branches 

var. cylindracea 

2b Shrub 




erecta A.S. George 




Document Outline

                • History
      • Description
            • Distribution and habitat
              • Biology and ecology
                  • Summary of population information and threats
        • Pop. No. & Location
      • Guide for decision-makers
        • Objectives
        • Existing recovery actions
        • Future recovery actions
        • Coordinate recovery actions
        • Liaise with relevant land managers
        • Install Declared Rare Flora markers and restrict access
        • Write and implement a rabbit control strategy
        • Repair fence
        • Undertake weed control
        • Develop and implement a fire management strategy
        • Monitor population
        • Conduct further surveys
        • Promote awareness
        • Write a full Recovery Plan
        • 4.TERM OF PLAN

Kataloq: images -> documents -> plants-animals -> threatened-species -> recovery plans -> Approved interim recovery plans
Approved interim recovery plans -> White featherflower
Approved interim recovery plans -> Verticordia
Approved interim recovery plans -> Southern shy featherflower
Approved interim recovery plans -> Interim recovery plan
Approved interim recovery plans -> Scaly-leaved featherflower
Approved interim recovery plans -> Pine featherflower (verticordia staminosa subsp. Cylindracea var. Erecta)
Approved interim recovery plans -> Plant assemblages of the Billeranga System Interim Recovery Plan
Approved interim recovery plans -> Clay pans of the Swan Coastal Plain
Approved interim recovery plans -> Phalanx grevillea
Approved interim recovery plans -> Interim Recovery Plan 2014–2019 Department of Parks and Wildlife, Western Australia

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