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Why does gender equality matter for development?
What does this Report do?
Where has there been the most progress in gender equality?
Where have gender inequalities persisted and why?
What is to be done?
The political economy of reforms for gender equality
A global agenda for greater gender equality
Introduction: A guide to the Report
Gender equality and development: Why do the links matter?
Navigating this Report: A roadmap
Part I Taking stock of gender equality
1 A wave of progress
Times are changing?
Rising global consensus for women’s rights
Better outcomes for women in many domains
Change begets change
C O N T E N T S
Severely disadvantaged populations
“Sticky” domains, despite economic progress
Spread 1 Women’s pathways to empowerment: Do all roads lead to Rome?
Part II What has driven progress? What
Explaining the framework
Applying the framework
3 Education and health: Where do gender differences
female mortality after birth
Chapter summary: In reducing gender gaps in education and health,
households, markets, or institutions—is sufﬁ cient to improve outcomes.
Progress has been slower either where multiple barriers need to be lifted
at the same time or where a single point of entry produces bottlenecks
4 Promoting women’s agency
Women’s agency matters
Economic growth can promote women’s agency but has limited impact
Rights and their effective implementation shape women’s choices and
Chapter summary: Women continue to have less capacity than men to
Understanding gender differences in productivity and earnings
What explains employment segregation by gender? A ﬁ
Gender, time use, and employment segregation
Gender differences in access to productive inputs and
Gender impacts of “aggregate” market and institutional failures
Breaking out of the productivity trap: How and why to do it
Chapter summary: Persistent employment segregation by gender traps women
The world is becoming more integrated—Recent trends and facts
Trade openness and ICTs have increased women’s access to economic
Choosing the right policies
Enabling policy implementation
The global agenda for action
7 Public action for gender equality
Policies to reduce gaps in health and education
Policies to improve economic opportunities
Policies to improve women’s agency
adolescents and young adults
Making gender-smart policies: Focusing “gender mainstreaming”
Wanted: Better evidence
8 The political economy of gender reform
Informal institutions—Social networks as agents of change
Rationale for and focus of a global agenda
What to do and how to do it
Selected World Development Indicators
1 What do we mean by gender equality?
2 The Millennium Development Goals recognize the intrinsic
4 What do we mean by markets, formal institutions, and
Malaysia and Sri Lanka
6 Catalyzing female employment in Jordan
7 Intervening early to overcome future labor market failures—
0.1 Problems with estimating the effect of gender equality on
2.1 The many faces of climate change
3.1 Adult mortality risks: Who are the outliers?
4.1 Pensions—Coverage, amounts, and survivor beneﬁ ts are
important for women’s autonomy
4.2 Property in marriage (and divorce)
4.3 Widows risk losing their assets but might gain some
4.7 Why do social norms persist?
4.8 How stereotypes inﬂ
5.1 Closing the access gap—Recent advances in female labor
5.2 Women in the boardroom
5.3 Gender discrimination in hiring? Evidence from employment
5.6 The seeds of segregation are planted early—How gender
differences in education trajectories shape employment
5.7 Overview of data used in analyzing gender differences in time
5.8 What did you do all day? Perceptions on time use patterns of
composition: What matters most for policy?
5.10 Family formation and public sector employment in
increased access to economic opportunities on women’s
6.5 Globalization and working conditions—Some progress, but
7.4 Catalyzing female employment in Jordan
7.5 Innovative approaches to expanding access to ﬁ nance for
8.5 Differences among women about their right to vote—
8.12 Fiji: International norms as a driver of gender equality in
8.13 Changing social norms from the bottom up
8.14 Tunisia—Women’s voice and women’s rights
8.15 Sweden—Encouraging an involved fatherhood
1 Gender outcomes result from interactions between
achieved in much of the world, but tertiary enrollments are
very low and favor women
5 Female labor force participation has increased over time at
female school enrollment
7 Female disadvantage within countries is more marked at
8 Women and men work in different sectors
9 Explaining persistent segregation and earnings gaps
10 Across the world, women spend more hours per day on care
and housework than men
11 Gender differences in agricultural productivity disappear
B0.1 GDP per capita and gender equality are positively
achieved in much of the world, and tertiary enrollments
now favor women
1.2 Gender explains little of the inequality in education
1.3 Women are living longer than men
1.4 What took the United States 100 years took India 40 and
the Islamic Republic of Iran 10
1.5 Gender explains little of the inequality in use of preventive
1.6 The gender gap in labor force participation narrowed
1.7 Across countries, at every income level, female labor force
1.8 Who agrees that a university education is more important for
1.9 Who agrees that when jobs are scarce, men should have more
2.1 Female enrollments remain strikingly low in some
incomes . . .
2.3 . . . yet in others, at low levels of wealth girls stay longer in
2.4 At low incomes, fertility rates remain high—And the poorer
2.5 Maternal mortality in many developing countries is similar to
2.6 Women are more likely than men to work in the informal
2.8 Across the world, women spend more hours each day on
in market activities
2.9 Who controls women’s own income?
2.10 Perceptions in many nations are that wife-beating is
2.11 There is great heterogeneity in rates of domestic violence
reported across nations
2.12 Men are perceived as better political leaders than
very low and favor women
educational outcomes, less than one-ﬁ fth of inequality stems
3.3 What explains progress in school enrollments?
3.4 Free primary education reduced gender gaps in
dwarf gender differences within countries
3.6 Adult and child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa
3.7 Adult mortality: Over time and by sex
3.8 Income growth did not reduce excess female mortality during
nutrition outcomes, or use of health services when a child
Small differences do not explain the variation in the fraction
they visit health facilities
3.12 Levels of excess female childhood mortality in high-income
middle-income countries today . . .
. . . and the excess female mortality declined with reduction in
countries during 1930–60
3.14 High income countries today had excess female mortality
20th century . . .
. . . and the excess mortality at all income levels declines with
the reproductive ages?
3.16 Excess female mortality by age in four countries with high
3.17 In some countries, there is excess male mortality
3A.1 Sex ratio and age-speciﬁ c mortality, 2008
3A.2 Excess female mortality globally at each age in 2008 using
violence as an adult
4.2 Limited progress in women’s agency is explained by mutually