Chapter I introduction Background of the Study

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Chapter I


    1. Background of the Study

Literature study describes the literary works to explore the values for humanity. Therefore, a literary work can be said to be worth when in the literary works contains properties or important things that are beneficial to the reader. Reading literature can know and recognize specific of people's lives, because they essentially literature is a reflection of the life of society. Literary work is a very important work of art that had a great impact in our life, because we can express ourselves by words which can describe our feelings and thoughts.

According to Taum (1997:13) literature is the copyrighted work or who are imaginative fiction or literature is the use of language that is beautiful and useful that signify other things.

“Sastra adalah karya cipta atau fiksi yang bersifat imajinatif atau sastra adalah penggunaan bahasa yang indah dan berguna yang menandakan hal-hal lain”.

Comparative literature is one of the sciences that emphasize the comparison of two or more works to be able to determine the similarity of the work. In general, comparative literature speaks of the relationship between the two literary works of different cultures but has parallels of form and content.

Comparative literature is the study of literature and other cultural expressions across linguistic and cultural boundaries. Comparative literature is an academic field dealing with the literature of two or more different linguistic, cultural, nation groups. Etymologically, the term comparative literature denotes any literary work or works when compared with any other literary work or works.

The characteristically intercultural and transnational field of comparative literature concerns itself with the relation between literature, broadly defined, and other spheres of human activity, including history, politics, philosophy, and science.

Therefore, it can be concluded that comparative literature is comparative study that compares two kinds of literary works from across national borders, across periods, etc to find its relationship related to the context.

According to Suwardi Endraswara (2011:112) comparative literature is research that not only examines the similarities and differences between literart works textually, but furthermore the lives of those seeking to know the socio cultural background underlying the birth of a text.

Sastra bandingan adalah penelitian yang tidak hanya berusaha mengkaji persamaan dan perbedaan antar karya sastra secara tekstual, namun lebih jauh lagi yakni berusaha mengetahui latar belakang kehidupan social budaya yang mendasari lahirnya sebuah teks”.

Drama is the science that stages a work of art that usually works the text is removed from myths or legends that exist in the community. Drama as one of the literary genres in which the drama is writting in language that is alluring and impressive. Drama can be written by the author in applying the beautiful language as figurative or rhyme so that it becomes a dialogue. Drama also has the rhythm and the sound of a beautiful and interesting so could describe characters.

The plot is the story line on a work that explains about the incident and a serie of event containing the conflict and culture to build a story, so make attractive readers. The plot is basic framework that is very important. The plot is set how the actions should be related to one another, how an event has a realitionship with the other events, as well as how the character is portrayed and was instrumental in the events.

The plot is a story containing a sequence of events, but each incident was just linked in cause and effect, one event caused or led to other events (Stanton in Nurgiyantoro 2010:113).

Plot adalah cerita yang berisi urutan kejadian, namun tiap kejadian itu hanya dihubungkan secara sebab dan akibat, peristiwa yang satu disebabkan atau menyebabkan terjadinya peristiwa yang lain (Stanton, dalam Nurgiyantoro 2010:114)”.

Karma Sang Pendosa by Rosyid E Abby is drama text based on story Dalem Boncel in west Java. The story Karma Sang Pendosa about Boncel from kandangwesi village, Boncel was from a poor family. To made his parent happy, Boncel worked to master karta who was stingy and cruel. Until he left the village and met some a hunter, finally Boncel brought to Garut and worked. Due to the diligent worked, Boncel believed to be assessor. When Dalem Boncel retired, Boncel who were change it. A poor young man from village eventually became Dalem. Ten years later. His parent followed, but Boncel not confess them as his parents until Boncel expel them. Finally, Boncel was regret after his body got itch disease, but he was let for apologize because his parents was died.

Malin Kundang by Tira Ikranegara was a folklore legend from west Sumatra, his name was Malin, to make his mother happy, he left the village. In the end, Malin was adopted by a rich family which made him a nobleman. And then one day, Malin went to his old village and met his real mother, but Malin didn’t admit that she was his mother and humiliated her. She was very furious. She prays to god, to give Malin a well-deserved punishment. And God granted her wish. Malin was turned into a stone for being such an ungrateful child.

From these two literary works, the writer was very interested to compare the book “Malin Kundang” by Tira Ikranegara and the drama scenario “Karma Sang Pendosa” by Rosyd E Abby. These two have the same stories about children who were disobedient. Therefore, the writer will compare the plot of Karma Sang Pendosa with Malin Kundang.

    1. Identification of Problem

After read Karma Sang Pendosa drama text by Rosyid E Abby and Malin Kundang book by Tira Ikranegara, researcher finds out some similarities from those stories, the similarities may be influenced by the culture.

    1. Limitation of the Problem

The writer’s research paper uses two different literary works as the main object for comparing Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang.

In studying a case, it is important to make the limitation of the study in order to make easier from the subjects. This study focuses on analyzing on the plot Karma Sang Pendosa with Malin Kundang.

    1. Research Questions

In this study, the research questions are made mainly based on the background of the study above, to reach the purpose of this paper, the writer will be conducted to answer the questions that is formulated in this question: what are similarities between the plot of Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang?”

    1. Objective of the Study

According to research question, the writer the writer has purpose that expected through this study. The objective of this study is to find out the similarities on the plot Karma Sang Pendosa with Malin Kundang.

    1. Significance of the Study

This significance of this study can be classified into two parts:

  1. For researcher: through this research, researcher can enrich his knowledge about literature.

  2. For public: through this research, people will get information about the similarities on the plot Karma Sang Pendosa with Malin Kundang.

Chapter II

Theoretical Foundation
This chapter focuses on giving theoretical foundation of the research. The theoretical foundation is aimed to give direction how the research should be conducted. Since the researcher concerns to a comparative study on the plot of “Karma sang Pendosa” by Rosyid E Abby with Malin Kundang book by Tira Ikranegara.
2.1 Folklore

Folklore is the story told orally in ancient times to communicate advice or entertainment for the local community, with folklore also one characteristic in one area. Characteristic of folklore is delivered orally and hereditary, is not known who the author was the first time and has many versions. According to James Danandjaja (2007:83) folklore is delivered orally, where fairy tales are prose stories of the people who are considered not really happen.

The word ‘folklore’ is an absorption English word ‘folklore’, which is derived from two words, folk and lore. Folk is synonymous with collective, which also has the characteristics of a physical identifier or the same culture, and have the consciousness of personality as a unity of the community. Lore is the tradition of folk, which is a partly inherited culture in hereditary orally.

  • The characteristics of folklore is as follows:

  1. The distributing and inheriting process is usually done orally (spoken), which means it was told between one person to another.

  2. Folklore has a traditional characteristic, because the distribution and inheriting took a simple and standard form.

  3. Folklore exists in different versions and variants. This is because the spreading process was done by the word of mouth (orally), so folklore could easily experience changes.

  4. Folklore is anonymous, which means the name of its creator is not known any more.

  5. Folklore belongs to everybody, because the first creator is no longer known.

  • Forms of Indonesian Folklore

  1. Oral folklore is folklore has a purely verbal shape. These forms include (a) the folk speech (traditional language) such as slang words, traditional nicknames, rank and aristocracy titles; (b) traditional expressions, such as proverbs, (c) traditional quiz, like riddles; (d) people’s poetry, like verses and poems; (e) folk prose story, such as myth, legends and fairy tales; and (f) the song of the people.

  2. Part oral folklore is a folklore which forms a mixture of elements of oral and not oral such as the people’s beliefs.

  3. Non-oral folklore is folklore doesn’t have an oral form, although it was taught orally. A large group of non-oral folklore can be divided into two subgroups, which is material and non-material. An example of a material folklore is traditional architecture and traditional handcrafts. While the non-material folklore includes: gesture.

2.2 Drama

Drama is a literary work which expresses the story through the dialogues of the character. Drama as a literary works is actually temporary, since the screenplay is written as a basis to be staged. The differences of drama with other genres: written in dialogues form, there are players, performed on the stage. There is audience.

Menurut Damono (1983:114) ada tiga unsur yang merupakan satu kesatuan yang menyebabkan drama itu dapat dipertunjukkan, unsur itu berupa unsur naskah, pementasan, dan penonton.

“There are three elements that form a unity that led to the play to be performable, the elements are element script, staging and audience”.

The word ‘drama’ is derived from a Greek word; the word is ‘dran’ which means to act or to do. In terms of etymology, a drama Prioritize acts, motions, which were the core essence of each play.

Menurut Henry Guntur (1984:82) dalam satu kategori terntu, drama itu dapat di bagi atas empat jenis yaitu: tragedy, komedi, melodrama, farce.
“in one particular category, the drama can be divided into four types: tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce”.

The drama also known as long plays and as short plays. Long (full-length) plays usually consists of three or five phases; contains a long story, characters, and various settings. The number of phases is tailored to three or five stages, namely the introduction of a story plot, conflict, climax, parsing problem, and ending. Short plays only one consists of one phase, so it is often called a one-act drama. In that one act the structure of story in the levels above are resolved.

  • Forms of Drama

  1. Tragedy is the story ends with grief. It usually deals with the deeds in his/her destiny, for example: the story of Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare).

  2. Comed y is story filled with giggles or laughs and ends in joy, for example: Tartuffe (by Molliere)

  3. Tragi Comedy is a mixture between tragedy and comedy story. For example: Opera Kecoa (by: N Riantiarno)

  4. Melodrama is a tear-wearing story and usually mixed with music, for example: Primadona (by: N. Riantiarno)

  5. Farce is an act which presented excessively and absurdly, the chosen style is caricature.

  6. Parody is a reversed facts and reality in purpose of providing something to be laughed about.

  7. Satire is a humiliation/abuse toward a person or a situation which presented full of bitterness

  8. Musical is a play which is accompanied by music and each dialogues are turned into lyrics and songs.

  9. Opera is the whole play is being sung by the actor/actress with full orchestra and a high quality singing technique

  • Elements of drama

In order to evaluate a play, first we must recognize its elements well, which are:

  1. Plot

The plot is a storyline that is in the works to give a series of events organized to be part fiction and non-fiction, so that became the framework in the story. Plot is events from start to finish.

According to William Kenney (1966:13) “the structure of plot divided into three parts. They are the beginning which consists of the exposition on introduction, the middle which consists of conflict, complication and climax and the end which converses denouement or resolution”.

drama’s plot must travel forward from the beginning through a center stage towards an end. In a drama, these sections are known by the terms exposition, complication, and resolution.

Menurut Hasanuddin WS (24:2009) alur adalah rentetan peristiwa yang satu dengan peristiwa yang lain dalam hubungan sebab akibat, tanpa hubungan sebab akibat suatu rentetan peristiwa tidaklah dapat disebut suatu alur.

“Plot is a sequence of events that unites with other events in the causal relationship, without causal relationship a sequence of events could not be called a plot”.

Stanton (2007:28) said that:

Alur merupakan tulang punggung cerita, berbeda dengan elemen-elemen lain, alur dapat membuktikan dirinya sendiri meskipun jarang diulas panjang lebar dalam sebuah analisis. Sebuah cerita tidak akan pernah seutuhnya dimengerti tanpa adanya pemahaman terhadap peristiwa-peristiwa yang mempertautkan alur, hubungan kausalitas”.

Plot is the backbone of the story, different with other elements, the groove can prove himself though rarely for reviews at length in an analysis. A story will never be fully understood without an understanding of the events that use groove, causality.
The exposition of a play underlies and arranges the set of motion or action in matters of time and place. The exposition introduces the character to us, which will be developed in the main part of the play, and gave an indication to the resolution.

In charge of developing the complications of conflict, the heroes or protagonist encounter a distraction, obstacles of its objectives; he made errors, in this complications we can learn as well as observe the type of person the protagonist actually is. The author can use highlight or flash-back technique to introduce the protagonist’s past to explain the situation or to prepare for the motivation in a play is a very important factor. We expect every character, play well, and play properly in accordance with his/her role.

Resolutions shall take place logically and had a reasonable relationship with anything that preceded it, which exsisted in complications. The point separating complications from resolution is usually called climax or turningpoint. On the climax there is this "crucial shift" or animportant changes in fate or the success of the character. The climax is the point where the direction will be intended by the plot. Whether it satisfies or not will depends on whether things are portrayed or the contain changes in accordance with our contain changes in accordance with our expectations. The end of the play may be a happy end, and perhaps vice versa, an unhappy end. But in a well performed play, it can’t always be judged easily, does it end happily or not.

In the story Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang has a plot structure like Freytag’s pyramid it is exposition the star of the story to establish the story begin for giving the information required by the reader in order to understand the way of the story. This initial section usually contains the name of the characters, gender, age, occupation, social conditions, place of residence, and the things which according to the author it is important to be known by the reader. After that rising action the series of complications, conflict and layers of mystery that build towards the climax. The middle part of the story begins with the things that can lead to conflict because at the center of this story in the form of a series of conflicts that higher intensity and reach the summit and called the climax of a story. Climax the turning point and the point of highest intensity emotionally, falling action that a pieces of falling into place to solve the story. The last resolution the rising action are returned to a state of normal. From the explanation above that a plot of the story made interested to the reader and audience or spectator.

  1. Characterizations

Because a play needs to be short and dense, then the author must be able to picture the character appropriately and clearly to bring the impression to life. That is why the author uses several types of characters or actors which commonly used in theatres. Abrams (1981:20) said that character is a person presented in dramatics of narrative works who are interpreted by reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they say and what they do in action. Therefore, it can be said that the relation between character and its personal quality depends on the readers’ acceptation. The readers can get the personality of a character through its utterances (verbal) and actions (non verbal). Some of them are:

  1. The foil; a character who help explaining another character. He/she maybe a minor character who simply functioned as a help, or maybe he/she also takes an important role in the play.

  2. The type character; a character who act smart and correct. He/she could play a villager or a noble person.

  3. The static character; this character didn’t get any changes, whether at the beginning of the play or the end, he/she stayed static.

  4. The character who develops in the course of the play; a character who develops him/herself as the play goes on. For example: a kind and honest character quickly turned ruthless and bad character at the end of the story.

  1. Dialogue

In every play, a dialogue must meet these two criteria, which are:

  1. A dialogue must be able to heighten the value of motion.

A noble person must be able to do more than just making his/her dialogue appealing, it has to be good and well performed. A dialogue is used to portrait every event that has taken place during the play and also must portray the thoughts and feelings of every character who is involved in the dialogue.

  1. A dialogue must be good and prestigious.

A dialogue must be pointed towards a clear direction, unlike daily conversation. The characters need to speak clearly and to the point. If the real conversation rhyme and idioms has been well-understood, then the audience will feel that the dialogue is proper, natural, or in other word, it appeals the audience.

  1. Kinds of literature and drama medium

The many kinds of medium included in literature and drama is an important point which could determine the success of a play. Some of it are as follows:

  1. Repetition

When reading a script or a story, we should know and aware of the many kinds of repetition around literature world. An author could be using a repetition as a leading motive or supporting motive. We have to fully realize if the repetition is a series of parallel events or a contradictives event, and also knowing the function it have.

  1. Style and atmosphere

Style and atmosphere could be limited by an appreciation which done by the author. We should be aware to every figure of speech in a play so that we could see and understand the meaning of every kind of rhyme in the play.

  1. Symbolism

Symbolism deprived from a Greek word which means ‘to throw together’, it means recycling two worlds or things at a time. By using a real things such as flowers, light and darkness. Authors sometime portray his/her ideas in an abstract way.

  1. Empathy and aesthetic distance

A medium that should be researched and understood in literature is empathy and aesthetic distance. A spectator will be considered having an empathy to a play, if he/her experience what he spectates emotionally. He/her considered having aesthetic range if the emotion comes in many ways so that he/she is aware of every single thing. Types, characteristic, atmosphere, and image will determine how much amount of empathy and aesthetic distance to found on a play.

The job of a scriptwriter and play director is to build a harmony between those two elements. Artistically, a play should be made as real as possible to make the audience connects with the actors, feelings, emotions, and thoughts of the play.

In a drama, the emotions of the audience must come automatically as the play go, so it could be a pride to every audience.

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