Immunogen, antigen, epitope, hapten Immunogen: a stimulus that produces a humoral or cell-mediated immune response



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Immunogen, antigen, epitope, hapten

  • Immunogen: a stimulus that produces a humoral or cell-mediated immune response

  • Antigen: any substance that binds specifically to an antibody or a T-cell receptor



Immunogen, antigen, epitope, hapten

  • All immunogens are antigens but not all antigens are immunogens



Immunogen, antigen, epitope, hapten

  • Immunogen: a stimulus that produces a humoral or cell-mediated immune response

  • Antigen: any substance that binds specifically to an antibody or a T-cell receptor



Immunogen, antigen, epitope, hapten



The key event…



The basis of immunogenicity…

  • Foreignness

  • Molecular size

  • Chemical composition and heterogeneity

  • Degradability



The key event…



The key event…

  • A processed antigen in an MHC is seen by a TCR. This “viewing” occurs in the ternary complex.

  • The TCR asks the MHC, “Are you me?” and receives an affirmative answer, “Yes.” Here the TCR looks at the MHC histotope.

  • The TCR asks the processed antigen, “Are you me?” and receives the negative answer, “No!” Here the TCR uses its paratope and looks at the epitope.



The key event…

  • A processed antigen in an MHC is seen by a TCR.

  • The TCR asks the MHC, “Are you me?” and receives an affirmative answer, “Yes.”

  • The TCR asks the processed antigen, “Are you me?” and receives the negative answer, “No!”





The basis of immunogenicity…

  • Foreignness

  • Molecular size

  • Chemical composition and heterogeneity

  • Degradability







Experimental systems…



Epitopes for B-cells versus T-cells

  • By examining myoglobin one can see that the Ag’s seen by B-cells and T-cells are different. B-cells see a continuous or discontinuous series of amino acids; by some circumstance, amino acid residue 109 has never been a part of an epitope for any monoclonal antibody; yet residue 109 is always part of the processed antigen seen by a TCR.



Presentation of processed antigen…



Presentation of processed antigen…



There are two general classes of antigens

  • Exogenous (external)

  • Endogenous (internal)



There are two general classes of antigens

  • Exogenous: presented by Antigen Presenting Cells (APC’s). These are macrophages, B-cells, and some dendritic cells

  • Endogenous: typically peptides derived from any protein; an infected cell displays “not-self” proteins and is, thus, an “altered self cell”



There are two general classes of antigens

  • Exogenous: these antigens are presented in MHC-II; they are seen by T-cells with a TCR and an associated protein called CD4

  • Endogenous: these antigens are presented by MHC-I; they are seen by T-cells with a TCR and an associated protein called CD8



There are two classes of T-cells

  • TH have CD4 which interacts with MHC-II; thus, CD4+ T-cells are “MHC-II restricted.”

  • TH cells are “helper cells” that send signals (via cytokines and surface proteins) to other cells of the immune system. The TH cells function as the “brain” of the immune system.



There are two classes of T-cells

  • TC have CD8 which interacts with MHC-I; thus, CD8+ T-cells are “MHC-I restricted.”

  • TC cells become cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL’s) which attack “altered self-cells (e. g., infected cells.) “Altered self-cells” are also called “target cells.” They are the targets for the CTL’s cytotoxicity.



Experimental systems… viz. “haptens”

  • Hapten: a low molecular-weight molecule that can be made immunogenic by conjugation to a suitable carrier…



Haptens…



Haptens…



Summary…

  • Immunogen

  • Antigen

  • Epitope

  • Hapten



Experimental systems… viz. “adjuvants”

  • Adjuvants: A substance that non-specifically enhances the immune response to an antigen





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