Issn 0143-6597 print/issn 1360-2241 online/03/020235-19



Yüklə 225.51 Kb.
PDF просмотр
səhifə3/3
tarix25.11.2016
ölçüsü225.51 Kb.
1   2   3

Conclusion

Aside from its empirical insights into the dynamics of 

ASEAN

economic


regionalism in the 1990s, this paper is of wider analytical significance. Theo-

retically it confirms the domestic level as a key level of analysis in explaining the

relationship between globalisation and economic regionalism. Thus regionalism

may be one of three basic types, namely, open regionalism, a resistance model, or

a developmental version. Which project ultimately emerges is determined at the

domestic level, where the domestic social and political setting mediates global-

isation in significant ways. The analysis of 

AFTA


has demonstrated that the

particular domestic setting influences the way international events are interpreted

by policy makers and other groups, their potential impact assessed and policy

choices made. In short, while the systemic level—globalisation—may well

provide the initial trigger or impulse for regionalism, domestic political dynamics

that shape the nature of domestic coalitions mediate the final outcome. It is

precisely this form of interaction that gave rise to the distinct approaches to

economic regionalism we have seen in 

ASEAN



250



ATTEMPTING DEVELOPMENTAL REGIONALISM THROUGH AFTA

Notes

This paper, a revised version of an earlier article, is drawn from the author’s PhD dissertation, and has

benefited from valuable comments made by Richard Higgott, Shaun Breslin, David Camroux, John

Ravenhill, Kevin Hewison, Kanishka Jayasuriya and Philip Creighton at various points in its writing.

1

Vietnam, Laos, Burma and Cambodia acceded to 



AFTA

when they formally became members of the

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (

ASEAN


), later in the decade.

2

The analysis focuses on the original 



ASEAN

members—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines,

Singapore and Thailand.

3

The term ‘open regionalism’ originally meant a form of regionalism that was based on the principles



of unilateral liberalisation as well as non-discrimination in tariff preferences between members and

outsiders (Drysdale & Garnaut, 1993: 187–188). The term is now used in a more general sense to

characterise regionalist schemes that are fundamentally about engaging with the global market

(Gamble & Payne, 1996: 251).

4

The conceptual distinctions between the two variants of open regionalism are discussed in Nesadurai



(2001: 60–70).

5

The conventional treatment has been of segments of capital distinguished by their market orientation,



either towards the domestic market or the international market. See, for instance, Gourevitch (1978).

6

This insight comes from Paul Krugman’s ‘import protection as export promotion’ variant of strategic



trade theory, which reveals that when a domestic firm is given a privileged position in the home

market, it enjoys an advantage in scale over foreign rivals that enables the firm to realise ‘learning by

doing’ benefits. A larger protected home market offers greater dynamic scale and learning effects to

the privileged firm. See Krugman (1986).

7

See Crouch (1996) for Malaysia and Habir (1999) for Indonesia.



8

Growth is defined here as the expansion of economic wealth of a country, irrespective of its distribu-

tion among different groups, firms or individuals. Distribution, on the other hand, involves the

conscious allocation by governments of income, rents and other economic benefits to particular

individuals, groups or firms who would otherwise not have received these gains through the workings

of the free market.

9

See, among others, Ravenhill (1995) and Bowles & MacLean (1996).



10

Menon (1998:18) subscribes to this view.

11

Only in Indonesia were the restrictions on



FDI

minimal, which made the 

ASEAN

/non-


ASEAN

investor


distinction in this country somewhat irrelevant. See Nesadurai (2001: 164–172).

12

Interview with Ong Hong Cheong, former coordinator of Malaysian participation in 



OECD

workshops,

May 2001.

13

See Ali Abul Hassan (1992), and Abdullah Tahir, quoted in Felker (1998: 247).



14

‘Malaysia against restrictive investment rules: Rafidah’, Business Times, 10 July 1996.

15

‘Malaysia, seven others jointly oppose new 



WTO

rules’, Business Times, 5 November 1996.

16

Interview with Karun Kittisataporn, a senior official on 



ASEAN

from the Thai Commerce Ministry,

August 2000.

17

Interview, July 2000.



18

Bisnis Indonesia, 10 October 1998.

19

Interview with Karun Kittisataporn.



20

Interview with an official of the Singapore Trade Development Board, conducted via e-mail in June

2001.

21

See ‘Hopes vary for investment area’, Bangkok Post, 11 September 1996.



22

See the argument put forward by economists at these meetings (Chia, 1996: 20).

23

‘Investment area plan proceeding’, Bangkok Post, 9 January 1998.



24

‘BOI backs 30% as level for national treatment’, Bangkok Post, 17 January 1998.

25

‘Proposal aims to classify 



ASEAN

investors as locals’, Bangkok Post, 21 March 1998.

26

Discussion with then 



ASEAN

Deputy Secretary General, Dr Suthad Setboonsang, July 2000.

27



ASEAN



cuts deeper into trade, investment barriers’, Business Times, 8 March 1999.

28

‘Region’s ministers reaffirm plan’, Bangkok Post, 6 March 1999.



29

Joint Press Statement, First Meeting of the 

ASEAN

Investment Area Council, 5 March 1999.



30

Habibie had presided over Indonesia’s state-driven high-technology programme under Suharto’s

tenure. He took over as President in 1998 when Suharto was ousted from power.

31

In any case, it is not clear that developmental regionalism through the



AIA

would have been feasible as

a means to help develop indigenous Indonesian capital. It was more likely that the larger, more

advanced ethnic Chinese businesses would have been the project’s main beneficiaries.

32

Joint Press Statement, Thirty-third 



ASEAN

Economic Ministers Meeting, 15 September 2001.

33



ASEAN



set to liberalise investment within region’, Business Times, 30 September 1999.

34

‘Investment in Southeast Asia plunges’, International Herald Tribune, 27 July 2000. Later informa-



tion revealed a higher 1999 figure of US$16 billion. See 

UNCTAD


(2000).

251


HELEN E S NESADURAI

35

‘Foreign investors desert Southeast Asia for China’, Financial Times, 13 October 2000.



36

Interview with a senior Malaysian trade official, December 2001.

37

See Chairman’s Statement, Seventh 



ASEAN

Summit, 11 November 2001.

38

Press Release of the US–



ASEAN

Business Council, 13 September 2001.

39

See Press Statement, Fourth 



AIA

Council Meeting, 14 September 2001.



References

Alagappa, M (1995) Seeking a more durable basis, in: M Alagappa (ed), Political Legitimacy in



Southeast Asia: The Quest for Moral Authority, pp 293–334 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University

Press).


Ali Abul Hassan, S (1992) Long-term economic planning and strategies in a globalisation era, paper

presented to the Conference on Economic Globalisation: Issues, Challenges and Responses by

Developing Countries, Universiti Utara Malaysia (Northern University of Malaysia), 16–17 August.

ASEAN


(1998) Framework Agreement on the 

ASEAN

Investment Area, Manila, 8 October.

Baldwin, P (1997) Planning for 



ASEAN

: How to Take Advantage of Southeast Asia’s Free Trade Area

(London: Economist Intelligence Unit).

Borsuk, R (1999) Markets: the limits of reform, in: DK Emmerson (ed), Indonesia Beyond Suharto,

pp 136–168 (New York: ME Sharpe).

Bowles, P & MacLean, B (1996) Understanding trade bloc formation: the case of the 

ASEAN


free trade

area, Review of International Political Economy, 3 (2), pp 319–348.

Brown, C (1998) Indonesia: the changing balance of commercial power?, in: K Sheridan (ed), Emerging

Economic Systems in Asia, pp 180–207 (Sydney: Allen & Unwin).

Chia, SY (1996) Intra-

ASEAN

direct investments, paper presented at the Seminar on the Promotion of



Foreign Direct Investment in the Context of the 

ASEAN


Investment Area, 23–24 May 1996, Bangkok,

Thailand.

Crouch, H (1996) Government and Society in Malaysia (Sydney: Allen & Unwin).

Djidin, DA (1997) The political economy of Indonesia’s new economic policy, Journal of Contemporary



Asia, 27 (1), pp 14–35.

Drysdale, P & Garnaut, R (1993) The Pacific: an application of a general theory of economic integra-

tion’, in: CF Bergsten (ed), Pacific Dynamism and the International Economic System, pp 183–223

(Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics).

Dunning, JH (1993) Globalisation: The Challenge for National Economic Regimes (Dublin: Economic

and Social Research Council).

Felker, G (1998) Upwardly global? The state, business and 

MNC


s in Malaysia’s and Thailand’s techno-

logical transformation, unpublished PhD Dissertation, Princeton University.

Gamble, A & Payne, A (1996) Conclusion: the new regionalism, in: A Gamble & A Payne (eds),

Regionalism and World Order, pp 247–264 (London: Macmillan).

George, J (2001) Creating globalisation: ‘patriotic internationalism’ and symbiotic power relations in the

post-WW2 era, 

CSGR

Working Paper No 66/01, Coventry: Centre for the Study of Globalisation and

Regionalisation (

CSGR

), University of Warwick.



Gomez, ET (1996) Electoral funding of general, state and party elections in Malaysia, Journal of

Contemporary Asia, 26 (1), pp 81–99.

Gourevitch, P (1978) The second image reversed: the international sources of domestic politicsInter-



national Organisation, 32 (4), pp 881–911.

Habir, AD (1999) Conglomerates: all in the family, in: DK Emmerson (ed), Indonesia Beyond Suharto,

pp 168–202 (New York: ME Sharpe).

Haggard, S & Kaufman, RR (1997) The political economy of democratic transitions, Comparative



Politics, 29 (3), pp 263–283.

Hay, S (1996) The 1995 

ASEAN

summit: scaling a higher peak, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 18 (3),



pp 254–274.

Hewison, K (2001) Pathways to recovery: bankers, business and nationalism in Thailand, Working Paper



Series No 1 (Hong Kong: Southeast Asian Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong).

Higgott, RA (2000) Back from the brink: the theory and practice of globalisation at century’s end, in: MC

Anthony & J Hassan (eds), Beyond the Crisis: Challenges and Opportunities, pp 67–91 (Kuala

Lumpur: Institute of Strategic and International Studies).

Hurrell, A (1995) Regionalism in theoretical perspective, in: L Fawcett & A Hurrell (eds), Regionalism

in World Politics, pp 37–73 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Hveem, H (2000) Explaining the regional phenomenon in an era of globalisaton, in: R Stubbs & GRD

Underhill (eds), Political Economy and the Changing Global Order, pp 70–81 (Oxford: Oxford

University Press).

252


ATTEMPTING DEVELOPMENTAL REGIONALISM THROUGH AFTA

Khoo, BT (2000) Economic nationalism and its discontents: Malaysian political economy after July

1997, in: R. Robison et al (eds),  Politics and Markets in the Wake of the Asian Crisis, pp 212–237

(London: Routledge).

Khor, M (2001) Rethinking Globalisation (London and New York: Zed Books).

Krongkaew, M (1997) An alternative interpretation of economic policy determination in Thailand: an

important interplay of bureaucracy, political power and private business, IDRI Occasional Paper, No

9, Tokyo: Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (

FASID

).

Krugman, P (1986) Introduction: new thinking about trade policy, in: P Krugman (ed), Strategic Trade



Policy and the New International Economics, pp 1–22 (Cambridge, MA: 

MIT


Press).

Liddle, RW (1999a) Regime: the New Order, in: DK Emmerson (ed), Indonesia Beyond Suharto,

pp 39–70 (New York: ME Sharpe).

Liddle, RW (1999b) Indonesia’s unexpected failure of leadership, in: A Schwarz & J Paris (eds), The



Politics of Post-Suharto Indonesia, pp 16–39 (Singapore: Raffles Publishing for the US Council on

Foreign Relations). 

McCargo, D (1998) Elite governance: business, bureaucrats and the military, in: R Maidment,

D Goldblatt & J Mitchell (eds), Governance in the Asia–Pacific, pp 126–149 (London: Routledge/

Open University).

Menon, J (1998) The expansion of 

AFTA

: widening and deepening?, Asia–Pacific Economic Literature,



12 (2), pp 10–22. 

MIER


(2001a)  Malaysian Economic Outlook 2001: First Quarter Update (Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian

Institute of Economic Research).

MIER

(2001b)  Malaysian Economic Outlook 2001: Second Quarter Update (Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian



Institute of Economic Research).

Mittelman, JH (2000) The Globalisation Syndrome: Transformation and Resistance (Princeton, NJ:

Princeton University Press).

Moravcsik, A (1997) Taking preferences seriously: a liberal theory of international politics, International



Organisation, 51 (4), pp 513–553.

Nesadurai, HES (2001) The political economy of the 

ASEAN

free trade area: globalisation, developmental



regionalism and domestic politics, unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Politics and

International Studies, University of Warwick.

Palan, R & Abbott, J with Deans, P (1996) State Strategies in the Global Political Economy (London:

Pinter).


Parsonage, J (1994) The state and globalisation: Singapore’s growth triangle strategy, Working Paper No

23, Perth, Australia: Asia Research Centre/Murdoch University.

Phongpaichit, P & Baker, C (1996) Thailand’s Boom (Sydney: Allen & Unwin).

Phongpaichit, P & Baker, C (1998) Thailand’s Boom and Bust (Chiangmai: Silkworm Books).

Ravenhill, J (1995) Economic cooperation in Southeast AsiaAsian Survey, XXXV (9), pp 850–866.

Reich, R (1991) The Work of Nations (London: Simon & Schuster). 

Robison, R (1997) Politics and markets in Indonesia’s non-oil era, in: G Rodan, K Hewison & R Robison

(eds), The Political Economy of Southeast Asia, pp 29–63 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Smythe, E (2000) State authority and investment security: non-state actors and the negotiation of the

multilateral agreement on investment at the 

OECD

, in: R Higgott, GRD Underhill & A Bieler (eds),



Non-State Actors and Authority in the Global System, pp 74–90 (London: Routledge).

Stopford, J & Strange, S (1991) Rival States, Rival Firms: Competition for World Market Shares

(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Stubbs, R (2001) Performance legitimacy and ‘soft authoritarianism’, in: A Acharya, BM Frolic & R

Stubbs (eds), Democracy, Human Rights and Civil Society in Southeast Asia, Toronto: Joint Centre

for Asia Pacific Studies.

Tori, T (1997) The new economic policy and the United Malays National Organisation, The Developing

Economies, XXXV (3), pp 209–239.

UNCTAD


(2000) World Investment Report 2000 (New York: 

UNCTAD


).

Wong, PK & CY Ng (1997) Singapore’s industrial policy to the year 2000, in: S Masuyama, D

Vandenbrink & Chia Siow Yue (eds), Industrial Policies in East Asia, pp 121–141 (Singapore and

Tokyo: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies and Nomura Research Institute).

WTO

(1998) Report of the 



WTO

General Council Meeting (Geneva: 

WTO


(www.wto.org)).

Yeung, HW-C (1999) Singapore’s Global Reach: An Executive Report, Singapore: Department of

Geography, National University of Singa.

253


EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Roxane  Farmanfarmaian,  University  of  Cambridge,  UK

MANAGING EDITOR

Alessandra  Buonfino,  University  of  Cambridge,  UK

Cambridge Review of International Affairs aims to foster discussion about

developing  issues  and  theoretical  approaches  in  the  study  of  international  relations.

It  does  this  by  providing  a  forum  for  emerging  scholars  and  practitioners  of

international  affairs  to  present  their  ideas  alongside  those  of  more  established

academics.  Through  cutting-edge  academic  research,  policy  analysis  and

commentary,  Cambridge  Review  of  International Affairs  offers  fresh  perspectives

to  current  debates.  In  addition  to  publishing  work  by  professional  academics,  the

journal  actively  encourages  officials  in  government,  industry  and  NGOs  to

contribute  articles  which  provide  practical  insights  to  scholarly  discourse.

This  journal  is  also  available  online.

Please  connect  to  www.tandf.co.uk/online.html  for  further  information.

To  request  a  sample  copy  please  visit:  www.tandf.co.uk/journals



SUBSCRIPTION RATES

2003  –  Volume  16  (3  issues)

Print  ISSN  0955-7571

Online  ISSN  1474-449X

Institutional  rate:  US$251;  £153

(includes  free  online  access)

Personal  rate:  US$55;  £33  (print  only)



Cambridge Review of

International Affairs

ORDER FORM

ccam


PLEASE  COMPLETE  IN  BLOCK  CAPITALS AND  RETURN TO THE ADDRESS  BELOW

Please  invoice  me  at  the 

q

  institutional  rate 

q

  personal  rate

Name _______________________________________________________________________________________

Address ______________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

Email _______________________________________________________________________________________

Taylor  &  Francis  Ltd,  Rankine  Road,  Basingstoke,  Hants  RG24  8PR,  UK



Tel: +44 (0)1256 813002   Fax: +44 (0)1256 330245  Email: enquiry@tandf.co.uk   Website: www.tandf.co.uk

Taylor & Francis Inc, 325 Chestnut Street, 8th Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA



Tel:  +1  215  6258900  Fax:  +1  215  6258914    Email:  info@taylorandfrancis.com    Website:  www.taylorandfrancis.com

Please contact Customer Services at either:

New to Carfax

for 2002
1   2   3


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə