Lecture Phonetic stylistic device. Plan

Implicitness and explicitness of the text

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Implicitness and explicitness of the text
It is known that language has two levels of expressing thoughts: explicit and implicit. The explicit is what has, its own, complete immediate verbal expression, the implicit is what has no such verbal expression, but is suggested by the explicit, expressed and comprehended by the addressee with the help of the explicit, as well as the context, linguistic and pragmatic situations and other factors. Therefore we can’t say that the explicit has its own expression, but their kinds are different: the first one is direct and immediate and the second one is indirect and hidden. The explicit and implicit are in a certain sense opposite forms of expressing thoughts.
The analyses of the implicit presupposes the following questions: what the man says and what he means by it; what is concealed in his utterance, what is employed by his words; what he keeps in his mind, what he is hinting at, what is the hidden meaning of his words.
Very often the conveyance of the implicit becomes a primary and even the only purpose of the utterance, moving the explicit to the background. V. I. Moroz compares the act of thinking with an iceberg, calling the explicit its ‘above- water’ part and the implicit- its ‘under water’ part.
The problem of the implicit acquires a special significance in studying literary texts, as the essence of imaginative literature lies in the fact, that its ideas are expressed by means of images, i.e. smith. abstract is expressed by means of smith. concrete. Consequently that means that literary texts should consist of two layers or two levels: the obvious surface layer (explicit) and the deep-lying, concealed layer (implicit). Moreover the implicit layer may have different levels which results in different degrees of grasping the meaning by different readers (addressees).
Among the most wide-spread types of implicates in belles-lettres text we distinguish the following:
a) an implicit title. It expresses in a concentrated form the main idea or theme of a literary production and requires for its realization the macro context of the whole work. An implicit title is a framing sign, requiring obligatory conclusive consideration after reading the complete literary text. It increments the volume of its meaning at the expense of a multitude of contextual meanings. The content meaning of a title at the entrance into the text never coincides with its meaning at the exit from the text.
The idea of belles-lettres work must be implicit, it shouldn’t be self-evident and unequivocal, it is the law of imaginative literature, its sense, the basis of its artistic significance.
The first man to pay attention to the problem of the implicit was Aristotle. At present time the implicit is researched from the position of logic, philosophy, psychology and literary criticism.
b) Implication of precedence(предшествование). It denotes such compositional structure of a literary text which gives the reader an impression that he is a witness of some continued story and the preceding events, facts and personages are supposed to be familiar. Implication of precedence is realized with the help of such implicates as the initial definite article opening the text, initial usage of personal and demonstrative pronouns and other synsemantic elements, producing the impression of ‘beginning from the middle’, increasing the dynamism of narration and deep-hidden tension.
c) An implicit detail. This term unites a multitude of implicates, which mark the external characteristics of a phenomenon, intimating its deep-lying meaning.

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