Centre for Peace Studies Master’s in Peace & Conflict Transformation svf-3024 Conflict Resolution & Conflict Transformation Spring 2011 Course Organisation Coordinator



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Centre for Peace Studies

Master’s in Peace & Conflict Transformation
SVF-3024 Conflict Resolution &

Conflict Transformation
Spring 2011
Course Organisation
Coordinator Percy Oware, CPS
Lecturers Ole D. Mjøs – Faculty of Medicine, UiT

Kathleen Jennings – Fafo, Oslo

Vidar Vambheim - Department of Education, UiT

Indra de Soysa – Department of Political Science, NTNU

Tor Ivar Hanstad – Department of Philosophy, UiT

Jemima García-Godos – Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, UiO

Stina Torjesen - Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Oslo,


Objectives

The course seeks to provide contemporary insights into the inter-linked economic, political and social dimensions of violent conflicts and peace-building. Its argument is that students should not only develop practical knowledge of the strategies for conflict management, resolution and transformation, but also the relevant analytical skills needed for critiquing these strategies. This suggests the ability to draw on relevant theories to examine efforts at building sustainable peace and human development in war torn societies. It thus draws upon many important case studies from diverse conflict settings to demonstrate where strategies have been pursued and the specific conditions that have influenced their outcomes.


Content
I. Violent Conflict and Negotiation



Just War Theory – Premises and Challenges

  1. (01) The space for moral reasoning about war

  2. (02) War and justice: ‘Jus ad bellum’& ‘Jus in bello’

  3. (03) Contemporary applications and challenges – responsibility to protect, cosmopolitan strategies and asymmetric war


Warfare and Economic Activities: The Social Order of Insurgencies

  1. (04) Economic approaches to violent conflict

  2. (05) The resource curse: how can wealth make you poor and insecure?

  3. (06) State capacity and rebel financing



II. The Pursuit of Peace: Strategies and Institutional Dynamics
Peace building: key concepts and perspectives

  1. (07) Peace processes and their contexts: understanding the agendas, agencies and instruments of peace building

  2. (08) Peace process: Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) – the creation of a peace-building blueprint

(09) Peace process: Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of fighters in Afghanistan
Gender, Conflict and Peace-building

(10) Introduction: Gender in armed conflict and peacekeeping

(11) Gender and DDR programs

(12) Sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, and post-conflict political economies





Peace Education

(13) Perspectives on peace education

(14) Peace education and context

(15) Evaluating effects of peace education


Transitional justice after conflict and authoritarianism

  1. (16) Introduction to Transitional Justice

  2. (17) Truth and Reconciliation Commissions and reparation

  3. (18) Land restitution in Transitional Justice


Required Readings

Course texts

(Available for purchase from the University bookshop, Akademisk Kvarter)


* Walzer, Michael (2000) Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations, New York: Basic Books

* Also used as course text for SVF 3021: Integrated Peace Studies

Recommended Readings

Course texts
Berdal, Mats (2009) Building Peace after War. London: The International Institute for

Strategic Studies

Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone (ed.)(2000) Greed & grievance: economic agendas in civil

wars. Boulder: Lynn Rienner Publishers

Binford, Leigh (1996) The El Mozote Massacre: Anthropology and Human Rights. Tucson: University of Arizona Press

Conteh-Morgan, Earl (2004) Collective political violence: an introduction to the theories and cases of violent conflicts. London: Routledge

Deutsch, Morton and Peter Coleman (ed.)(2006) The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey Bass

Del Castillo, Graciana (2008) Rebuilding War-torn States: The Challenge of Post Conflict Economic Reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Eron, Leonard, Jacqelyn Gentry and Peggy Schlegel (2002) Reasons to hope. A psychological perspective on youth violence. Washington DC: American Psychological Association

Juergensmeyer, Mark (2005) Gandhi’s Way: A Handbook of Conflict Resolution. Berkeley: University of California Press

Keen, David (2008) Complex emergencies. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Keen, David (2005) The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars. London: Routledge.

Koonings, Kees and Dirk Kruijt (ed.)(2004) Armed Actors: Organised violence and State Failure in Latin America. London: Zed Books

Martín-Baró, Ignacio (1994) Writings for a Liberation Psychology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press

Miall, Hugh (2007) Emergent Conflict and Peaceful Social Change. London: Palgrave

Pugh, Michael (2008) Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of
Peacebuilding
. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Skaar, Elin, Siri Gloppen and Astri Suhrke (ed.)(2005) Roads to Reconciliation. Oxford: Lexington Books

Staub, Erving (1992) The Roots of Evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Walzer, Michael (2004) Arguing About War. New Haven & London: Yale University Press

Wessells, Michael (2007) Child soldiers: from violence to protection. Cambridge: Harvard University Press


Course packages and downloads

Those readings not taken from course texts (see above) are available through the following sources: (i) in a course package, which can also be purchased from Akademisk Kvarter; (ii) by direct download from the web; and (iii) as an offprint provided to students in class. Those readings not taken from the course texts listed above are thus marked as one of the following under ‘Class Plan’:


Compendium – all readings marked *C*

Internet articles – all readings marked *E1, 2, 3, etc.*

Individual off prints – all readings marked *O*

I. Violent Conflict and Negotiation

This section focuses on the changing political role and practices for handling conflict at different levels and in different contexts. Much of the literature chronicles the different ways in which violence and/or oppression are institutionalised and, in so doing, draws attention to some key impediments to the institutionalisation of peace. It also points to concrete strategies of handling conflicts through communication and negotiation.



Just War Theory – Premises and Challenges



(01) The space for moral reasoning about war

- Hanstad

The first lecture focuses on the fundamental premise for just war theory, including the acceptance of the thesis of double effect, the premise of state sovereignty and the inescapable influence from both pacifism and political realism. The lecture will also address the question of how to understand war in relation to politics and power.
Required Readings

Walzer, Michael (2000) ‘Against Realism’ and ‘Law and Order in International Society’ in Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustration. New York: Basic Books. pp. 3-20, , pp. 51-73 (41 pp.)



*C* Clausewitz, Carl von (1993) ‘What Is War?’ in On War. London: Everyman’s Library.

pp. 83-101 (18 pp.)



*E1* Reid, Julian (2003) ‘Foucault on Clausewitz: Conceptualizing the Relationship between War and Power’ in Alternatives 28. 1-28 (28 pp.).
Recommended Readings

Walzer, Michael (2000) ‘The Crime of War’, ‘Anticipations’ and ‘Afterword: Nonviolence and the Theory of War’ in Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustration. New York: Basic Books. pp. 21-33, pp. 51-85 and pp. 329-335 (55 pp.)


Walzer, Michael (2004) ‘The Triumph of Just War Theory (And the Dangers of success)’ in Arguing About War. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. pp. 3-22 (20 pp.)


(02) War and justice: ‘Jus ad bellum’& ‘Jus in bello’

-Hanstad

The second lecture will focus on the traditional criteria for jus ad bellum and jus in bello. This will include discussions of what jus ad bellum and jus in bello in traditional state versus state wars, as well as reflections on whether the same criteria are adaptable to late-modern asymmetric conflicts (including ‘war’ on terrorists).

Required Readings

Walzer, Michael (2000) ‘War’s Means and the Importance of Fighting Well’‘Non-combatant Immunity and Military Necessity’‘Guerrilla War’ and ‘Terrorism’ in Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York: Basic Books. pp. 127-159 and 176-206 (64 pp.)


*C* Johnson, James Turner (1999) Morality and Contemporary Warfare. London: Yale University Press. pp. 8-40, (33 pp.)
Recommended Readings

Rodin, David (2006) ‘The Ethics of Asymmetric War’ in Sorabji, Richard and David Rodin (ed.)


The Ethics of War. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 153-168 (16 pp.)

(03) Contemporary applications and challenges – responsibility to protect, cosmopolitan strategies and asymmetric war

-Hanstad

The lecture will present some important contemporary issues that can be seen as a challenge to traditional just war theory. These challenges include phenomena/concepts such as ‘humanitarian interventions,’ ‘Human Security’ and ‘asymmetric warfare.’ The basis for the presentation will be the report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, Responsibility to Protect.
Required Readings

*E2* The International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (2001) The Responsibility to Protect. Ch. 1-5, pp. 1-46 (46 pp.)

*C* Atack, Iain (2005) ‘Cosmopolitanism and Armed Conflict’ in The Ethics of Peace and War. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 40-60 (21 pp.)
Recommended Readings

Walzer, Michael (2000) ‘Interventions’ and ‘Supreme Emergency’ in Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York: Basic Books. pp. 86-108 and 251-268 (41 pp.)



Warfare and Economic Activities: The Social Order of Insurgencies
- de Soysa
In these three lectures, the focus will be on diverse economic practices during war. Rather than solely examining the causes of conflict, the aim is to provide insights into the varying economic issues shaping conflicts in time and space; how wars are sustained, from the ways in which collective grievances are mobilised for individual economic gains, natural resource abuse, to livelihood adaptations in war afflicted communities. The main emphasis is on how non-state actors (such as rebel groups, militias, and warlords) finance their activities and establish specific forms of socio-economic systems in conflict situations, as well as how other social actors (e.g. children and women) affect and are affected by shadow war economies.
Besides the case studies in the reading list, which focus mostly on sub-Saharan Africa, students are encouraged to find supplementary materials on conflicts in other geographical areas.

(04) Economic approaches to violent conflict


Required Readings

*E3* Collier, Paul, Anke Hoeffler and Dominic Rohner (2009) ‘Beyond Greed and Grievance:

Feasibility and Civil War’ in Oxford Economic Papers 61(1). pp. 1-27 (27 pp.)



*E4* De Soysa, Indra (2002) ‘Paradise is a Bazaar? Greed, Creed, and Governance in Civil War,

1989-1999’ in Journal of Peace Research 39. pp. 395-416 (20 pp.)



*O* De Soysa, Indra (2009) ‘Hell is Other People? Social Fractionalization & and State

Repression, 1980-2004’ in Politischevierteljahresschrift 43. pp. 100-127 (27 pp.)



*E5* Fearon, James and David Laitin (2003) ‘Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War’ in American Political Science Review 97(1). pp. 1-16 (15 pp.)

*E6* Homer-Dixon, Thomas (1994) ‘Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases’ in International Security 19(1). pp. 5–40 (35 pp.)

*E7* Ross, Michael (2004) ‘How do Natural Resources Influence Civil War? Evidence From Case Studies’ in International Organization 58(1). pp. 35-67 (32 pp.)


Recommended Readings

Berdal, Mats, David M. Malone (ed.) (2000) Greed & grievance: economic agendas in civil



wars. Boulder: Lynn Rienner Publishers

Keen, David (2005) The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars. London: Routledge.

Le Billion, Philippe (2001) ‘The political ecology of war: natural resources and armed conflicts’ in Political Geography 20. pp. 561-584

Le Billion, Philippe (2001) ‘Angola’s economy of war: the role of oil and diamond, 1975-2000’ in African Affairs 100. pp. 55-80

(05) The resource curse: how can wealth make you poor and insecure?

- de Soysa

The next step is to look into the empirical facts of economic activities during conflict in more detail. As a preparation for the second lecture, students are encouraged to find information about economic activities under specific conflicts. They might, for example, think about how certain economic activities were organized during the conflicts in the Balkans or during other conflicts, which they are more familiar with.

(06) State capacity and rebel financing

- de Soysa
The concluding section entails a review of alternative theoretical perspectives on how to understand and analyse conflict dynamics. It concludes with a discussion of the potential implications of conflicts and policy approaches to address them.
II. The Pursuit of Peace: Strategies and Institutional Dynamics
Peace building: key concepts and perspectives
- Torjesen
These lecture series provide students with insights into international agencies and instruments deployed when outsiders attempt to build peace in war-torn countries. They also aim to provide an in-depth understanding of one of the key strategies within contemporary peace-building, namely, Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR).
Students are expected to grasp and critically assess key concepts associated with peace-building. They are also expected to gain an overview of the history and the current use of the DDR concept. Moreover, they are invited to critically reflect upon the aspirations to social engineering that underpin this concept and assess strengths and weaknesses of DDR in particular country cases.

(07) Peace processes and their contexts: understanding the agendas, agencies and instruments of peace building
Required Readings

*E8*ACCORD (2007) ‘Introduction’ in Conflict Management for Peacekeepers and
Peace-builder
. pp. 11-25 (14 pp.)

*C* Paris, Roland and Timothy Sisk (2009) The Dilemmas of State-building: Confronting the
Contradictions of Post-war peace operations
. London: Routledge. pp. 1-21 (21 pp.)

*C* Duffield, Mark (2007) Development, security and unending war governing the world of
peoples.
Cambridge: Polity Press pp. 111- 159 (48 pp.)
Recommended reading

Berdal, Mats (2009) Building peace after war. London: Routledge

Paris, Roland (2009) ‘Understanding the “coordination problem” in post-war state building’ in Roland Paris and Timothy Sisk The Dilemmas of State-building: Confronting the
Contradictions of Post-war peace operations.
London: Routledge

Pugh, Michael (2008) Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of


Peace-building.
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

(08) Peace Process: Disarmament, Demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) – the creation of a peace building blueprint



Required Readings

*C* Muggah, Robert (2008) ‘Introduction: The Emperor’s Clothes?’ in Robert Muggah (ed.) Security and Post-Conflict Reconstruction Dealing with Fighters in the Aftermath of War. London: Routledge

*E9* Torjesen, Stina and Tatjana Stankovic (2010) Fresh Insights on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration: A Survey for Practitioners NUPI report

Recommended Readings

Pouligny, Béatrice, (2004) The Politics and Anti-Politics of Contemporary Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Program Paris: Center for International Studies and Research (CERI - Sciences-Po/CNRS, France), Secrétariat Général de la Défense Nationale (Prime Minister’s Office, France) and Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies (Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva).
*E10* United Nations (2006) Briefing Note for Senior Managers on the Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standards. New York: UN InterAgency Working Group on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration.

*E11* Stedman, Stephen J. (1997) ‘Spoiler problems in peace processes’ in International Security, 22 (2). pp. 5- 53 (48 pp.)
(09) Peace process: Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of fighters in Afghanistan (with additional references to Tajikistan and Liberia)
- Torjesen

Required Readings

*C* Bhatia, Michael and Muggah, Robert (2008) ‘The politics of demobilization
in Afghanistan’ in Muggah, Robert (ed.) Security and Post-Conflict Reconstruction Dealing with Fighters in the Aftermath of War. London: Routledge

*E12* Giustozzi, Antonio (2008) ‘Bureaucratic façade and political realities of disarmament and

demobilisation in Afghanistan’ in Conflict, Security and Development 8(2). pp. 169-192 (23 pp.)
Recommended Readings

Dipali, Mukhopadhyay (2009) Warlords as Bureaucrats: The Afghan Experience.



Carnegie Paper.

Jennings, Kathleen (2008) ‘Unclear ends, unclear means: Reintegration in postwar societies – The Case of Liberia’ in Global Governance 14 (3). pp. 327-345 (18 pp.)

Jennings, Kathleen (2007) ‘The Struggle to Satisfy: DDR Through the Eyes of Ex-Combatants in

Liberia”, International Peacekeeping 14(2). pp. 1-15 (15 pp.)

Torjesen, Stina, Neil MacFarlane (2007) ‘R before D: the case of post conflict reintegration in

Tajikistan’ in Conflict, Security and Development 7(2). pp. 311-332 (21 pp.)



Gender, Conflict and Peace-building

In this section, the field of gender studies will be introduced and then related to the subject matter of peace studies. Gender is presented as a dimension to highlight the differential impacts of conflicts on men and women, and how their respective gendered needs are addressed in subsequent periods of peace and post-war reconstruction. What do gender and the relationships between men and women in society bring to peace studies?



(10) Introduction: Gender in armed conflict and peacekeeping
–Jennings

Required Readings

*C* Turshen, Meredith (1998) ‘Women’s War Stories’ in Turshen, Meredith and Clotilde Twagiramariya (ed) What Women Do in Wartime London: Zed Books. pp. 1-26 (26 pp.)

*C* Pankhurst, Donna (2008) ‘The Gendered Impact of Peace’ in Pugh, Michael, Neil Cooper and Mandy Turner (ed) Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. pp. 30-46 (16 pp.)

*C* Whitworth, Sandra (2004) ‘Militarized Masculinities and Blue Berets’ in Whitworth, Sandra (ed.) Men, Militarism, and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. pp. 151-182 (31 pp.)

(11) Gender and DDR programs

–Jennings



Required Readings

MacKenzie, Megan (2009) ‘Securitization and Desecuritization: Female Soldiers and the Reconstruction of Women in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone’ Security Studies 18(2). pp. 241-261 (20 pp.)



*E13* Integrated DDR Standards (2006) Section 5.10 Women, Gender, and DDR. pp. 1-22 (22 pp.)
(12) Sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, and post-conflict political economies

–Jennings


Required Readings
*E14* Jennings, Kathleen and Vesna Nikolic-Ristanovic (2009) UN Peacekeeping Economies and Local Sex Industries: Connections and Implications MICROCON Working Paper 17, Brighton: MICROCON.

*E15* Higate, Paul (2007) ‘Peacekeepers, Masculinities, and Sexual Exploitation’ in Men and Masculinities, 10(1). pp. 99-119 (20 pp.)

Recommended Readings:
Afshar, Haleh and Deborah Eade (2004) ‘Development, Women, and War’ in Feminist Perspectives. Oxford: Oxfam

Coulter, Chris, Persson, Mariam and Utas, Mats (2008) “Young Female Fighters in African Wars: Conflicts and its Consequences”, Policy Dialogue No. 3, The Nordic Africa Institute.

Pugh, Michael, Neil Cooper and Mandy Turner (2008) Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of Peacebuilding. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan

Turshen, Meredeth and Sheila Meintjes (2002) The Aftermath: women in post-conflict transformation. London: Zed Books



Peace Education

These lectures present contending epistemologies, discursive negotiations of violence and efforts at peace-building. They present knowledge as a terrain on which violence is both legitimised and challenged, and where peace is both conceived and instantiated. The character and challenges of such epistemic peace-work are further explored through the consideration of education and art as vehicles for the pursuit of peace.


(13) Background & perspectives: Trial(s) & error(s), success(es) & refutation(s).

(14) Educational interventions and context.

(15) Evaluating effects of educational interventions.

- Vambheim


Required Readings

*E16* Ali, Nosheen (2010) ‘Books vs Bombs? Humanitarian development and the narrative of

terror in Nortehern Pakistan’ in Third World Quaterly 31(4) Informaworld/

Taylor and Francis. pp. 541-559 (19 pp).

*E17* Evans, William (1997) ‘Identifying with the human species: A challenge for the 21st

century’, in Human Relations. 50(8) pp. 987-1004 (18p.).



*E18* Harris, Ian (2004) ‘Peace Education Theory’ in Journal of Peace Education. 1(1) pp. 5-20 (15 pp.).

*E19* Köylü, Mustafa (2004) ‘Peace Education: An Islamic approach’ in Journal of Peace

Education. 1(1) Taylor and Francis. pp.59-76 (18p).

*C* Nevo, Baruch and Iris Brem (2002) ‘Peace Education Programs and the Evaluation of their Effectiveness’ in Salomon, Gavriel and Baruch Nevo (ed.) Peace Education. The Concept, Principles, and Practices around the World. Mahwah. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass. pp. 271-282 (11 pp.).

*C* Salomon, Gavriel (2002) ‘The Nature of Peace Education: Not All Programs are Created Equal’ in Salomon, Gavriel and Baruch Nevo (ed.) Peace Education: The Concept, Principles and Practices around the World. Mahwah. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass. pp. 3-14, (web version) (12 pp.).

*E20* Salomon, Gavriel (2006) ‘Does peace education really make a difference? ’in Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 12 (1). pp. 37-48 (pp. 11).

*E21* Sommerfelt, Ole Henning and Vidar Vambheim (2008) ‘The Dream of the Good – a Peace Education Project Exploring the Potential to Educate for Peace at an Individual Level’ in Journal of Peace Education 5(1) (26 pp.)

*C* Tal-Or, Nurit, David Boninger and Faith Gleicher (2002) ‘Understanding the conditions and processes necessary for intergroup contact and reduced prejudice’ in Salomon, Gavriel & Baruch Nevo (ed.) Peace Education: The Concept, principles and practices around the world. New Jersey: LEA. pp. 89-108 (19 pp.).
Recommended Readings

Ahonen, Sirkka (1999) ‘The Role of Narratives in the Making of Historical Identity’ Paper presented at the 8th European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, Göteborg University (10 pp.)

Bar-Tal, Daniel (2004) ‘Nature, Rationale, and Effectiveness of Education for Coexistence’ in Journal of Social Issues 60 (2). pp. 253-271 (19 pp.)

*C3009*22 Bernstein, Basil (1994) ‘The Pedagogising of Knowledge: A social grammar’, in Amundsen, Inge (ed.) Knowledge and Development. Proceedings of the NFU Annual Conference. Tromsø: Centre for Environment and Development Studies (SEMUT). pp. 115-139 (25 pp.).

Cairns, Ed and Miles Hewstone (2002) ‘Northern Ireland: The Impact of Peacemaking in Northern Ireland on Intergroup Relations’ in Salomon, Gavriel and Baruch Nevo (ed.) Peace Education: The Concept, Principles and Practices around the World. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Ass. pp. 217-228 (11 pp.)

Freire, P. (2000) The Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum & al.

Selected chapters.

Mortenson, Greg and David Oliver Relin (2007) Three Cups of Tea. One Man’s Mission to

Promote Peace - One school at a time. New York: Penguin.

Nadmie, Rouhana and Daniel Bar-Tal (1998) ‘Psychological Dynamics of Intractable Ethnonational Conflicts. The Israeli-Palestinian Case’ in American Psychologist 53 (7). pp. 761-770 (web version) (10 pp.)

Salomon, Gavriel (2006) ‘Does peace education really make a difference?’ in Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 12(1). pp. 37-48 (11 pp).

Salomon, Gavriel (2004) ‘A Narrative-based View of Coexistence Education’ in Journal of



Social Issues 60(2), pp. 273-287, (web version) (15 pp).

Schwebel, Milton (2006) ‘Realistic empathy and active nonviolence confront political reality’in Journal of Social Issues 62 (1). pp. 191-208 (17 pp).

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Peru (web version)

UNESCO’s definition of peace education, (web version) (1 p).




Transitional justice after conflict and authoritarianism
Post-conflict societies face many challenges, not only concerning the present and the future, but also the past. The three lectures on transitional justice will discuss the different ways that countries coming out of armed conflict and authoritarian rule address their violent pasts. Does peace need justice and accountability to be sustainable? How to ensure accountability in post-conflict societies? What mechanisms can be applied and what do they imply? The lectures aim to provide students with a basic understanding of different transitional justice mechanisms, what considerations to take when opting for their implementation, and why they are important. The issue of land restitution as a form of victim reparations will also be addressed.

(16) Introduction to Transitional Justice
- García-Godos

Required Readings

*C* De Greiff, Pablo (2009) ‘Articulating the links between transitional justice and development: Justice and social integration’ in De Greiff, Pablo and Roger Duthie (ed.) Transitional justice and development: Making connections. New York: Social Science Research Council. pp 28-75 (47 pp.)

*C* Elster, Jon (2004) ‘The structure of transitional justice’ in Closing the Books. Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 79-135 (56 pp.)
Recommended Readings

Barahona de Brito, Alexandra, Carmen Gonzalez Enriquez and Paloma Aguilar (ed.) (2001) ‘Introduction’ in The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-39 (39 pp.)

Pantuliano, Sara (2009) Unchartered Territory: Land, Conflict and Humanitarian Action.
London: Overseas Development Institute.

Sherman, Lawrence and Heather Strang (2007) Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The Smith Institute. pp. 1-96 (96 pp.)

Skaar, Elin, Siri Gloppen and Astri Suhrke (ed.)(2005) Roads to Reconciliation. New York, Toronto, Oxford: Lexington Books

Teitel, Ruti G. (2000) Chapter 7: Toward a theory of transitional justice, and Epilogue Transitional Justice. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 213-230 (17 pp.)

Wilson, Richard (2001) The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Legitimizing the Post-Apartheid State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 1: Human rights and nation-building, pp. 1-30, (29 pp.)

(17) Truth and Reconciliation Commissions and Victim Reparations
- García-Godos

Required Readings

*E23* García-Godos, Jemima (2008) ‘Victim Reparations in Transitional Justice – What is at Stake and Why’ in Nordic Journal of Human Rights 26(2) pp. 111-130 (19 pp.)

*C* Ross, Fiona (2001) ‘Speech and Silence, Women's testimony in the First Five Weeks of Public Hearings of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission’ in Das, Veena, et al. Remaking a World. Violence, Social Suffering and Recovery. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 250 – 280 (30 pp.)

*E24* Shaw, Rosalind (2005) Rethinking Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: Lessons from Sierra Leone. Washington: United States Institute of Peace (12 pp.)
Recommended Readings

Arriaza, L. and N. Roht-Arriaza (2008) ‘Social Reconstruction as a Local Process’ in International Journal of Transitional Justice 2(2). pp. 152-172 (20 pp.)

García-Godos, Jemima and Knut Andreas O. Lid (2010) ‘Transitional Justice and Victims’ Rights before the End of a Conflict: The Unusual Case of Colombia’ in Journal of Latin American Studie,, 42(3). pp. 487-516 (29 pp.)

García-Godos, Jemima (2008) ‘Victim reparations in the Peruvian Truth Commission and the challenge of historical interpretation.’ in International Journal of Transitional Justice 2(1), pp. 63-82 (19 pp.)

Malan, Jannie (2008) ‘Understanding traditional justice in Africa’ in Francis, David J. (Ed.)

Peace & Conflict in Africa. London: Zed Books. pp.133-147 (14 pp.)

Shelton, Dinah (2005) ‘The UN principles and guidelines on reparations: context and contents’in De Feyter Koen et al. (ed.) Out of the ashes: reparation for victims of gross and systematic human rights violations. Antwerpen: Intersentia.


(18) Land restitution in Transitional Justice

- García-Godos



Required readings

*E25* Paglione, Giulia (2008) ‘Individual property restitution: from Deng to Pinheiro - and the challenges ahead’ in International Journal of Refugee Law, pp 391-412 (21 pp.)

*E26* Williams, Rodri (2007) ‘The contemporary right to property restitution in the context of transitional justice’ Occasional Paper Series. New York: International Center for Transitional Justice.

*C* Langford, Malcolm and Khulekani Moyo (2010) ‘Right, Remedy or Rhetoric? Land Restitution in International Law’ in Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 28(2) pp.144-177 (33 pp.)

Recommended Readings

Leckie, Scott (2008) ‘United Nations Peace Operations and Housing, Land and Property Rights in Post-Conflict Settings: From Neglect to Tentative Embrace’ in Leckie, Scott (ed.) Housing, Land, and Property Rights in Post-Conflict United Nations and Other Peace Operations: A Comparative Survey and Proposal for Reform. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 3-16.



Bradley, M. (2007). ‘Refugees and the reparations movement: Reflections on some recent literature’ in Journal of Refugee Studies 20(4), pp.662-668 (6 pp.)


1 http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/results?vid=2&hid=11&sid=709d876a-caf5-46cf-abe3-074b93afb0d3%40sessionmgr11&bquery=(JN+%22Alternatives%3a+Global%2c+Local%2c+Political%22+and+DT+20030101)&bdata=JmRiPWFmaCZ0eXBlPTEmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl

2 http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/publications/core-rtop-documents

3 http://oep.oxfordjournals.org/content/vol61/issue1/index.dtl

4 http://jpr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/39/4/395.pdf

5http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=142718&jid=PSR&volumeId=97&issueId=01&aid=142717

6 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2539147

7http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=197306&jid=&volumeId=&issueId=&aid=197304

8 http://www.accord.org.za/downloads/book/cm_handbook_sample.pdf

9 http://english.nupi.no/Publications/Books-and-reports/2010/Fresh-Insights-on-Disarmament- Demobilization-and-Reintegration

10 http://unddr.org/iddrs/briefing_note.php

11 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2539366

12 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a792963176

13 http://unddr.org/iddrs/05/

14 http://www.microconflict.eu/publications/RWP17_KJ_VNR.pdf

15 http://jmm.sagepub.com/content/10/1/99.full.pdf+html

16 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436591003701075

17 http://hum.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/50/8/987

18 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~content=a713624884~fulltext=713240930

19 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713624887~db=all~order=page

20 http://www.leaonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1207/s15327949pac1201_3

21 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a790564066

22 *C3009*: Printed in Course Compendium for Ped 3009: Education, Development, and Peace.

23 http://www.idunn.no/ts/ntmr/2008/02/victim_reparations_in_transitional_justice_-_what_is_at_stake_and_why

24http://www.usip.org/resources/rethinking-truth-and-reconciliation-commissions-lessons-sierra-leone

25 http://ijrl.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/20/3/391

26 http://www.ictj.org/static/PropertyRestitution/Rest_Pub_07.pdf





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