Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an illness resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. It is more likely if a susceptible pregnant woman is infected in the first trimester of gestation.
Signs and symptoms:
Severe birth defects in infants can result from the infection. Common congenital defects include cataracts, congenital heart disease, deafness, and developmental delay. Hearing impairment is the most common single defect. CRS symptoms may be delayed from 2 to 4 years.
Rubella is spread by droplets from the respiratory secretions of infected persons. It may be transmitted by subclinical cases or those without symptoms. Infants with CRS may shed the virus for 12 months.
Lab tests such as rubella virus isolation and positive antibody tests are the most reliable methods of diagnosing CRS. Moderate or severe CRS is usually recognizable at birth, but mild illness may not be detected for months or even years after birth.