Definition of animal disease surveillance



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Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Purpose and aims of disease surveillance

  • Main characteristic of different types of surveillance

  • Surveillance standards

  • Surveillance planning



Epidemiological vocabulary

  • Epidemiological vocabulary

  • Epidemiology – tools for decision making in presence of uncertainty

  • Surveillance

    • Branch of epidemiology
    • Gather information to help make decisions
    • No perfect information – aims to make right decision most of the time


What diseases?

  • What diseases?

    • Priority diseases –grater public interest
  • By who?

    • Government veterinary authority
    • Veterinary officials
  • Disease surveillance – key function of national veterinary services



Veterinary sector – leading party

  • Veterinary sector – leading party

  • Multi stakeholder activity

    • Private and public
    • Commercial and non commercial
    • Professional and general public
    • Individual and society


Often interchangeably with monitoring – NOT THE SAME

  • Often interchangeably with monitoring – NOT THE SAME

  • Can use same tools

    • distinction more in objectives than techniques
  • Monitoring can be part of surveillance (not visa verse)



Surveillance is:

  • Surveillance is:

  • All regular activities aimed at ascertaining the health status of a given population with the aim of early detection and control of animal diseases of importance to national economies, food security and trade

  • FAO Manual of livestock disease surveillance and information system

  • http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/x3331e/X3331E00.htm



Monitoring is:

  • Monitoring is:

  • All activities aimed at detecting changes in the epidemiological parameters of a specified disease

  • FAO Manual of livestock disease surveillance and information system

  • http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/x3331e/X3331E00.htm



Surveillance and mentoring in local language

  • Surveillance and mentoring in local language

  • Nadziranje/nadgledanje

    • Uzorci/samples
    • Inspekcijski nadzor/veterinary inspections
    • Dijagnostika/diagnostics
    • Izvještaji i nalazi/ reports and findings
  • Mjere kontrole

    • Zdravstveni certifikati/ heath certificates
    • Karantin/quarantine
    • Kontrola kretanja/movement control
    • Uništavanje životinja i sanitarno klanje/Slaughter and disposal of animals
    • Kompenzacija/Compensation
  • Surveillance = nadzor i kontrola



Surveillance (nadzor i kontrola, programi kontrole)

  • Surveillance (nadzor i kontrola, programi kontrole)

  • Surveillance strategy

    • Prevention
    • Control
    • Eradication


Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Purpose and aims of disease surveillance

  • Main characteristic of different types of surveillance

  • Surveillance standards

  • Surveillance planning



Impact of animal diseases

  • Impact of animal diseases

    • Human health
    • Food security and safety
    • Trade barriers
    • Costs of animal production
    • Sector and national economy
    • Human and animal wellbeing
    • Indirect impact


Reduce disease spread – prevent new outbreaks

  • Reduce disease spread – prevent new outbreaks

  • Support to animal production

  • Ensure food safety and quality

  • Comply with international standards and requirements



Establish communication between stakeholders regarding animal health

  • Establish communication between stakeholders regarding animal health

  • Understand epidemiology of disease

  • Improve veterinary service



Diseases of greater public interest

  • Diseases of greater public interest

  • Surveillance objectives

    • Early detection of epidemics
      • Outbreak reporting and outbreak investigation
    • Reliably measuring disease frequency


Surveillance objectives

  • Surveillance objectives

    • Disease management
      • Acting according to disease level
      • Prevent, control, eradicate disease
    • Establish disease spread
      • Temporally and spatially


Surveillance outcomes

  • Surveillance outcomes



Measuring disease frequency

  • Measuring disease frequency

    • By absolute and relative numbers
    • Absolute numbers – number of cases
    • Relative numbers – proportions, rates, odds


Disease prevalence – proportion of diseased animals in a population

  • Disease prevalence – proportion of diseased animals in a population

  • Static measure

  • Good for common, low contagious, chronic diseases





Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Purpose and aims of disease surveillance

  • Main characteristic of different types of surveillance

  • Surveillance standards

  • Surveillance planning



Clear purpose/aims

    • Clear purpose/aims
    • Justification – priority diseases, scientifically bases, international standards
    • Population definition
    • Methodology
    • Administrative structure/hierarchy
    • Financial support
    • Timeframe
    • Output orientated


Classification criteria

  • Classification criteria

    • Administrative/legal criteria
    • Intervention criteria
    • Disease
    • Included activities
    • Geography


Passive surveillance???

  • Passive surveillance???

    • Routine reporting of disease
    • No investigation efforts
    • Difference between passive surveillance and monitoring???
  • Active surveillance

    • Purposeful collection data on disease
    • Mainly through survey


Surveys – surveillance / studies – epi research

  • Surveys – surveillance / studies – epi research

    • Descriptive and explanatory
    • Experimental and observational
    • Retrospective and prospective
    • Cross section and longitudinal
    • Case – control and cohort


Cross sectional survey – prevalence study/outbreak investigation

  • Cross sectional survey – prevalence study/outbreak investigation

    • Useful for common conditions
    • Short time frame
    • Low cost
    • Good for multiple risk factors or outcomes
    • Prospective or retrospective
    • No measure of disease incidence




Case – control studies

    • Case – control studies
      • Groups according to disease status
      • Mostly retrospective
      • Useful for rare diseases
      • Short time – low cost
      • Good for multiple risk factors, not for multiple outcomes
      • Non representative, prone to bias
      • Can not calculate RR




Cohort study

    • Cohort study
      • Groups according to exposure
      • Mostly prospective
      • Useful for rare exposures
      • Long time – high cost
      • Good for multiple outcomes, not for multiple diseases
      • Direct estimate of effect (incidence, RR)
      • Control of bias




Targeted surveillance – Risk based surveillance

    • Targeted surveillance – Risk based surveillance
      • More disease burden – less resources
      • Combines epidemiology, public health, economy, trade consequences
      • Looks for disease where is expected – risk assessment
      • Higher benefits-cost ratio
      • Estimation of effectiveness!?


Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Purpose and aims of disease surveillance

  • Main characteristic of different types of surveillance

  • Surveillance standards

  • Surveillance planning



National requirements

  • National requirements

  • International standards

    • OIE
    • EU
    • Other








Defining appropriate level of protection – ALOP

  • Defining appropriate level of protection – ALOP

    • Minimum level - international requirement
    • Higher than – for exotic diseases + scientific justification
    • Consistent
    • Transparent
    • Equivalency


Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Definition of animal disease surveillance

  • Purpose and aims of disease surveillance

  • Main characteristic of different types of surveillance

  • Surveillance standards

  • Surveillance planning



Planned and managed activities

  • Planned and managed activities

    • Not hap-hazard action
  • Transparency

  • Agreed objectives

  • Targets and responsibilities

  • Human resources and time frames



Priority diseases

  • Priority diseases

  • Priority areas

  • Regionally important diseases

  • Trans boundary diseases

  • International disease reporting (OIE, TRACES,???)



Sources of disease data

  • Sources of disease data

    • Samples
    • Animal information
      • Nutrition
      • Husbandry
      • Use
    • Farmer information
    • Environment information
    • Auxiliary information


Population

  • Population

    • Targeted vs. Study population
    • Sampling frame, method, size
    • Time frame for sampling
    • Level of extrapolating conclusions


Administration

  • Administration

    • Defined responsibilities beforehand
    • Methods of data gathering, analysis and distribution
    • Intervention – when, by whom
    • Hierarchy of decision making


Financing

  • Financing

    • By who, and how
    • Partial vs full public financing
    • Public – private partnership
    • Transferring responsibility/cost according to benefits – i.e. food safety - HACCP


Measurables

  • Measurables

    • Not workload, used funds/resources
    • Relevant to diseases and set objectives
      • RELEVANT and RELIABLE DATA!!!
        • Mortality/morbidity
        • Prevalence/incidence
        • Costs and benefits


Surveillance activities according to true need/resources/possibilities

  • Surveillance activities according to true need/resources/possibilities

  • No single activity will be enough

  • Combating diseases requires knowing diseases and lot more






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