Department of Ecological and Medical Physiology, Institute of Physiology, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar, Russia Introduction. The balanced diet is one of important medico-biological means of functional recovery of athletes (Seyfulla et al., 2005). Athletes often have deficiency of some nutrients at modern training loadings. This leads to imbalance of normal level of the general power supply (Oleynik et al., 2008). This fact is actual for providing high rates of the maximum consumption of oxygen at athletes in winter cyclic sports. Purpose of our research was study of the food consumption of skiers.
Objectsand methods. Members of national teams of the Komi Republic on cross-country skiing examinated during training and competition. The nutritional and caloric content of daily ration of groups of athletes was studied: youth (16-17 years, n=16) and juniors (18-27 years, n=27). The original computer program "Module of Calculation of a ration" (Eseva, 2011) was used for a food assessment.
Results and discussion.Dietary intakeof athletes of both groups has similar tendencies. Daily consumption of Protein completely compensates physiological requirements of the organism of athletes (according to the corresponding physical activities). Daily consumption of this component with food is exceeded in youthful (>12-14%) and in junior groups (<18%) ("Norms …", 2008). Concerning the body weight of 1.5-1.8 g/kg, and it meets the standard accepted by WHO (1.5-2.0 g/kg) (WHO, 1995).
Carbohydrate balance decreased relative norms on 11-12% (young man) and on 13-15% (juniors) for the training and competitive period (60%) (Oleynik et al., 2008).
Daily consumption of fats with food is 30-35% more than norms and was 1.8-2.6 g/kg of fat (the norm is 0.8-1.5 g/kg for people with high physical activity) (WHO, 1995). Fats bring in daily caloric content 12-14% higher than norm for both age groups. The content of fat in an organism of skiers in norm for athletes (11,1% or 8,1 kg).
Nevertheless, the daily caloric content of food allowances of athletes of both groups satisfies to physiological norms ("Norms …", 2008) 2999,0-3341,8 kcal/days (junior group) and 2294,7-3562,6 kcal/days (junior group).
Conclusions.Caloric valueof dietary intakeis provided generally at the expense of fats and proteins, at less extent of carbohydrates. It is energetically irrational at intensive training loadings.
Further we plan to consider qualitative composition of fats which arrive with food. The computer program «Profile» will be developed. She will allow controlling the consumption of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids with food.