I. Find out the words in the dictionary. Write them down and learn



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UNIT 1

I. Find out the words in the dictionary. Write them down and learn.

phenomenon, nature, natural, to depend on (upon), knowledge, theory, to devise, accurate, to formulate, law, to predict, on the basis of, to correlate, distinct, to merge, to deal with, in terms of, matter, hence, concept, to de­termine, characteristics, to govern, transformation, to exist, to indicate, investigation, to situate, to surround, to revolve, stable, solid, gas, liquid, plasma

II. Read the text. Use a dictionary, if necessary.

Text: “What is physics”?

Physics is one of the most ancient sciences about nature. The word "physics" takes its origin from the Greek word "phewsis" meaning nature.

The development of other sciences depends in many respects on the knowledge of physical phenomena.

Physics studies various phenomena in nature: mechanical motion, heat, sound, electricity, magnetism and light.

Physics divides itself very naturally into two great bran­ches, experimental physics and theoretical physics. The former is the science of making observations and devising experiments which give us accurate knowledge of the actual behaviour of natural phenomena. On the basis of experimental facts theo­retical physics formulates laws and predicts the behaviour of natural phenomena. Every physical law is based on expe­riments and is devised to correlate and to describe accurately these experiments. The wider the range of experience covered by such a law, the more important it is. Physics is divided into half a dozen or more different fields — mechanics, sound, heat, electricity and magnetism, light, molecular, atomic and nuclear physics. These different fields are not distinct but merge into each other.

In all cases physics deals with phenomena that can be accurately described in terms of matter and energy. Hence, the basic concepts in all physical phenomena are the concepts of matter and energy. And it is important to determine accurately the characteristics of both matter and energy, the laws that govern their transformations, and the fundamental relations that exist between them.

Matter. Every substance саn be divided into particles known as molecules. Chemical reactions indicate that the molecules are composed of smaller units, or atoms. Modern physical methods of investigation have shown that the atom consists of a centrally situated nucleus with a total positive charge surrounded by a number of electrons which revolve about the nucleus. In a stable atom, the total positive charge of the nu­cleus is equal to the total negative charge of the electrons which surround the nucleus. The total electrical charge is zero and this is the conventional state of most atoms.

Matter can exist in four states: solid, gas, liquid and plasma.

III. Define the part of speech of the following words and translate them into Russian.

a) physics – physicist – physical

nature – naturalist – natural

experiment – experimentalist – experimental

theory – theorist – theoretical

chemistry – chemist – chemical

observation – observer – observational

transformation – transformer – transformable

indication – indicator – indicative

b) accurate – accurately

mechanical – mechanically

natural – naturally

actual – actually

central – centrally

positive – positively

negative – negatively

IV. FindEnglish equivalentsin the text.

1. различные явления в природе _______________________________

2. зависит во многих отношениях ______________________________

3. физика делится очень естественно ___________________________

4. две большие области _______________________________________

5. наука о проведении наблюдений _____________________________

6. даёт нам точные знания ____________________________________

7. формулирует законы _______________________________________

8. плавно переходят одна в другую _____________________________

9. с помощью понятий материи и энергии _______________________

10. следовательно ____________________________________________

11. основные понятия _________________________________________

V. Translate the followingword combinations and noun groups into Russian.

1. one of the most ancient sciences ______________________________

2. takes its origin _____________________________________________

3. the development of other sciences ____________________________

4. the knowledge of physical phenomena _________________________

5. the former _______________________________________________

6. on the basis of experimental facts _____________________________

7. predicts the behaviour of natural phenomena ____________________

8. to describe accurately ______________________________________

9. half a dozen or more different fields ___________________________

10. deals with phenomena ______________________________________

11. to determine accurately the characteristics ______________________

12. the fundamental relations that exist between them _________________

VI. Analyse the structure of the following sentences.

1. Modern physical methods of investigation have shown that the atom consists of a centrally situated nucleus with a total positive charge surrounded by a number of electrons which revolve about the nucleus.

2. In a stable atom, the total positive charge of the nucleus is equal to the total negative charge of the electrons which surround the nucleus.

VII. Fill in the missing words.

1. Physics is one of the most ancient _____ about nature.

2. The development of other sciences _____ in many respects on the knowledge of physical phenomena.

3. Physics divides itself very naturally into two great branches: experimental physics and _____ physics.

4. Experimental physics gives us _____ knowledge of the actual _____ of natural phenomena.

5. On the basis of experimental facts theoretical physics formulates _____.

6. Physics deals with phenomena that can be accurately described in terms of _____ and _____.

7. It is important to determine accurately the _____ of both matter and energy, the _____ that _____ their transformations.

8. Every substance can be divided into _____ known as molecules.

9. Modern physical methods of _____ have shown that the atom consists of a centrally situated _____ surrounded by a number of _____.

10. In a stable atom, the total positive charge of the nucleus _____ to the total negative charge of the electrons.

11. Matter can _____ in four states: solid, gas, liquid and plasma.

VIII. Fill in the prepositions if necessary.

Physics is one ___ the most ancient sciences ___ nature.

The development of other sciences depends ___ many respects ___ the knowledge ___ physical phenomena.

Physics divides itself very naturally ___ two great branches, experimental physics and theoretical physics.

___ the basis ___ experimental facts theoretical physics formulates laws.

In all cases physics deals ___ phenomena that can be accurately described ___ terms of matter and energy.

The atom consists ___ a centrally situated nucleus ___ a total positive charge surrounded ___ a number ___ electrons.

Electrons revolve ___ the nucleus.

In a stable atom the total positive charge of the nucleus is equal ___ the total negative charge ___ the electrons.

IX. Define whether the sentences are true or false.

1. Physics is a modern science about nature.

2. The word “physics” takes its origin from the Latin word meaning nature.

3. Physics studies various phenomena in nature.

4. Physics divides itself very naturally into three great branches.

5. Theoretical physics is the science of making observations and devising experiments.

6. On the basis of experimental facts theoretical physics makes observations.

7. Physics deals with phenomena that can be described in terms of matter and energy.

8. The atom consists of a centrally situated electron surrounded by a number of protons.

X. Practice with someone asking and answering.

What is physics?

Where does the word “physics” take its origin?

What phenomena does physics study?

What knowledge does the development of other sciences depend on?

What branches does physics divide itself into?

What is experimental physics?

What does theoretical physics formulate on the basis of experimental facts?

What fields is physics divided into?

What phenomena does physics deal with?

Every substance can be divided into particles known as molecules, can’t it?

What does the atom consist of?

What is the total electrical charge of an atom?

XI. Put the question to the following statements.

Physics is one of the most ancient sciences about nature.

Physics studies various phenomena in nature.

Every substance can be divided into particles.

XII. Dictate the following statements in English to your fellow-students.

Physics studies various phenomena in nature: mechanical motion heat, sound, electricity, magnetism and light.

On the basis of experimental facts theoretical physics formulates laws and predicts the behaviour of natural phenomena.

In all cases physics deals with phenomena that can be accurately described in terms of matter and energy.

The atoms consists of a centrally situated nucleus with a total positive charge surrounded by a number of electrons.

XIII. Dictation-translation.

Физика – одна из наиболее древних наук о природе.

Развитие других наук зависит во многих отношениях от знания физических явлений.

Физика изучает различные явления в природе: механическое движение, тепло, звук, электричество, магнетизм и свет.

Физика делится очень естественно на две большие области: экспериментальную физику и теоретическую физику.

Экспериментальная физика – это наука о проведении наблюдений и постановке экспериментов, которые дают нам точные знания о физических явлениях.

На основе экспериментальных фактов теоретическая физика формулирует законы и предсказывает поведение природных явлений.

Чем шире диапазон экспериментальных фактов, которые закон охватывает, тем он важнее.

Физика разделяется на полдюжины или больше различных областей.

Физика имеет дало с явлениями, которые могут быть точно описаны с помощью понятий материи и энергии.

Важно точно определить характеристики, как материи, так и энергии.

Каждое вещество может быть разделено на частицы, известные как молекулы.



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