Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services



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United Nations
E c o n o m i c   &
Manual on
Statistics
of
international
trade
in
services
United Nations
European Commission
International Monetary Fund
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
World Trade Organization


 


ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/86 
DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS 
STATISTICS DIVISION 
 
S
TATISTICAL 
P
APERS
 
S
ERIES 
M  N
O
. 86 
 
 
MANUAL 
 
on  STATISTICS  of 
 
INTERNATIONAL TRADE in SERVICES 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
United Nations 
 
European Commission  
 
 
International Monetary Fund 
 
 
 
 
 
Organisation for Economic 
Co-operation and 
Development 
 
 
United Nations Conference 
on Trade and Development 
 
 
World Trade Organization 
 
 
 
 
Geneva, Luxembourg, New York, Paris, Washington, D.C., 2002 


 
NOTE 
 
Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined 
with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document. 
 
 
ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/86 
International Monetary Fund 
Publication Stock No. MSITEA 
ISBN 1-58906-128-4 
 
United Nations publication 
Sales No. E.02.XVII.11 
ISBN 92-1-161448-1 
 
 
 
Inquiries should be directed to: 
 
United Nations Publications 
DC2-853 
New York, NY 10017 
 
e-mail: publications@un.org 
 
 
Copyright © 2002 
United Nations, 
European Commission, 
International Monetary Fund, 
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and 
World Trade Organization 
 
All rights reserved 
 


 
iii 
Foreword 
 
The  Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services has been developed and published jointly by our six 
organizations, managed through the mechanism of an inter-agency task force.  
The Manual sets out an internationally agreed framework for the compilation and reporting of statistics of 
international trade in services in a broad sense. It addresses the growing needs, including those of international trade 
negotiations and agreements, for more detailed, more comparable and more comprehensive statistics on this type of 
trade in its various forms. The recommendations, which will be promoted by our six organizations, will enable 
countries to progressively expand and structure the information they compile in an internationally comparable way. 
The Manual conforms with and explicitly relates to the System of National Accounts 1993 and the fifth edition of the 
International Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments Manual
The Manual has benefited from strong cooperation among the international organizations, the advice of specialist 
consultants, the invaluable input of a large number of member countries’ experts and the many comments received 
during the worldwide review conducted by the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund in 1999-2000.  It 
is intended for use by national and international agencies, and we commend it to countries for progressive 
implementation, taking into account their national information needs, priorities and resources.   
 
 
 
Hermann Habermann   
Director 
United Nations Statistics Division 
 
Yves Franchet 
Director General 
Statistical Office of the European Communities 
 
Carol S. Carson 
Director 
Statistics Department 
International Monetary Fund 
 
Enrico Giovannini 
Chief Statistician and Director of the Statistics Directorate 
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 
  
Henri Laurencin  
Chief Statistician  
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 
 
Roslyn Jackson  
Director of the Statistics Division 
World Trade Organization 
 


 
iv 
Contents
 
 
Foreword .................................................................................................................................................................... iii 
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................................................... vii 
List of acronyms......................................................................................................................................................... ix 
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1 
 
Chapters 
I.  Foundations of the Manual: general introduction and overview..................................................... 3 
A. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 3 
B.  Set of recommended elements for phased implementation ........................................................................... 5 
1.  Recommended core elements ................................................................................................................. 5 
2. Other 
recommended 
elements ................................................................................................................ 6 
C.  Shape of the Manual ...................................................................................................................................... 7 
II. Conceptual 
framework
 for the development of statistics on international trade in services.............................. 9 
A. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 9 
B.  Need for a statistical framework on international trade in services............................................................... 9 
1.  Globalization and multilateral services trade negotiations ..................................................................... 9 
2.  The General Agreement on Trade in Services ...................................................................................... 10 
(a)  Structure and guiding principles of GATS .................................................................................... 10 
(b)  The four GATS modes of supply................................................................................................... 11 
(c)  Services Sectoral Classification list - GNS/W/120 ........................................................................ 12 
C.  Statistical systems and classifications related to trade in services............................................................... 12 
1. International.......................................................................................................................................... 12 
(a)  System of National Accounts, 1993............................................................................................... 12 
(b)  Fifth edition of the IMF Balance of Payments Manual.................................................................. 13 
(c)  Central Product Classification, Version 1.0................................................................................... 13 
(d)  International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Revision 3.............. 14 
(e)  International Merchandise Trade Statistics.................................................................................... 14 
(f)  International migration frameworks and the Recommendations on Statistics of International 
Migration ....................................................................................................................................... 14 
(g)  Tourism Satellite Accounts: Recommended Methodological Framework .................................... 14 
2.  Other statistical systems and classifications ......................................................................................... 15 
(a)  Joint OECD-Eurostat Trade in Services Classification.................................................................. 15 
(b)  OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment......................................................... 15 
(c)  OECD Manual on Economic Globalisation Indicators .................................................................. 15 
D.  Approach and framework of the Manual..................................................................................................... 15 
1.  Statistics on trade in services, labour and investment from BPM5....................................................... 16 
(a)  Main BPM5 standard services components ................................................................................... 17 
(b)  Labour-related flows of funds........................................................................................................ 17 
(c)  Foreign direct investment .............................................................................................................. 17 
2. BPM5 
extensions .................................................................................................................................. 18 
(a)  Analysis of balance of payments transactions by origin and destination....................................... 18 
(b)  Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification ................................................................ 18 
3.  Foreign affiliates trade in services statistics ......................................................................................... 18 
(a)  FATS statistics: concepts and classification .................................................................................. 18 
(b)  FATS statistics and other statistical frameworks ........................................................................... 19 
4.  Statistical treatment of modes of supply: the simplified approach ....................................................... 20 
(a)  Simplified statistical criteria .......................................................................................................... 20 
(b)  Balance of payments statistics by modes of supply ....................................................................... 20 
(c)  FATS statistics and modes of supply ............................................................................................. 23 
(d)  Special problems in statistical treatment of mode 4....................................................................... 24 


 

(e) Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 25 
III. Services Transactions 
Between
 Residents and Non-residents.......................................................................... 26 
A. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 26 
B. Principles 
of 
recording................................................................................................................................. 26 
1.  Concept and definition of residence ..................................................................................................... 26 
2. Valuation 
of 
transactions ...................................................................................................................... 28 
3.  Other principles relating to the recording of transactions..................................................................... 28 
C. EBOPS......................................................................................................................................................... 29 
D.  Transactions between related parties ........................................................................................................... 33 
E.  Statistics by trading partner ......................................................................................................................... 34 
F.  Modes of supply and EBOPS ...................................................................................................................... 34 
1.  Allocation of modes of supply.............................................................................................................. 34 
2.  Priorities for allocation to modes of supply.......................................................................................... 35 
G.  Repairs on goods ......................................................................................................................................... 36 
H.  Definitions of the components of the Extended Balance of Payments Services classification.................... 36 
1. Transportation 
services ......................................................................................................................... 36 
2. Travel ................................................................................................................................................. 38 
3. Communications 
services ..................................................................................................................... 40 
4. Construction 
services............................................................................................................................ 40 
5. Insurance 
services ................................................................................................................................. 42 
6. Financial 
services.................................................................................................................................. 43 
7.  Computer and information services ...................................................................................................... 47 
8.  Royalties and license fees ..................................................................................................................... 47 
9.  Other business services......................................................................................................................... 47 
10.  Personal, cultural and recreational services .......................................................................................... 50 
11.  Government services, not included elsewhere...................................................................................... 50 
I.  Alternative aggregations of service and non-service transactions ............................................................... 51 
J. Data 
collection............................................................................................................................................. 52 
K.  Summary of recommendations .................................................................................................................... 53 
IV.  Foreign affiliates trade in 
services
 statistics ..................................................................................................... 54 
A. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 54 
B.  Universe to be covered ................................................................................................................................ 57 
1. Ownership 
criteria ................................................................................................................................ 57 
2. Types 
of 
producers ............................................................................................................................... 59 
C.  Time of recording ........................................................................................................................................ 60 
D. Statistical 
units............................................................................................................................................. 60 
E.  Attribution of FATS variables ..................................................................................................................... 60 
1. By 
country ............................................................................................................................................ 60 
(a) Inward FATS ................................................................................................................................. 60 
(b) Outward FATS............................................................................................................................... 62 
(c)  Note on the equal ownership of shares by residents of more than one country ............................. 62 
2.  By activity and by product.................................................................................................................... 62 
(a) By activity...................................................................................................................................... 63 
(b) By product...................................................................................................................................... 64 
F.  Economic variables for FATS ..................................................................................................................... 66 
1.  Sales (turnover) and/or output .............................................................................................................. 66 
2. Employment.......................................................................................................................................... 68 
3. Value 
added .......................................................................................................................................... 68 
4.  Exports and imports of goods and services........................................................................................... 69 
5.  Number of enterprises........................................................................................................................... 69 
6. Other 
variables...................................................................................................................................... 70 
G. Compilation 
issues....................................................................................................................................... 70 
H.  Summary of recommendations .................................................................................................................... 71 
 


 
vi 
Boxes 
1. Services 
definition ......................................................................................................................................... 7 
2.  International trade in services........................................................................................................................ 8 
3.  Example of the measurement of construction services................................................................................ 41 
4.  Estimation of insurance service charges...................................................................................................... 44 
5.  Financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM) ................................................................. 46 
6. Merchanting 
services................................................................................................................................... 48 
7.  Measuring foreign direct investment ........................................................................................................... 55 
8.  Immediate and ultimate investors................................................................................................................ 61 
 
Charts 
1.  The four modes of supply: statistical criteria............................................................................................... 22 
2.  Synthetic viewof modes of supply............................................................................................................... 23 
 
Tables 
1.  Statistical coverage of modes of supply ...................................................................................................... 24 
2.  Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification, including memorandum items ............................ 30 
3.  ISIC Categories for Foreign Affiliates (ICFA)............................................................................................ 64 
4.  Sample formats for FATS statistics............................................................................................................. 67 
 
Annexes 
I.  Movement of natural persons supplying services under GATS ......................................................................... 73 
II.  Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification..................................................................................... 81 
III.  EBOPS - CPC, Version 1.0 - GNS/W/120 correspondence tables..................................................................... 85 
Table A.III.1.  EBOPS – CPC, Version 1.0 – GNS/W/120 correspondence...................................................... 86 
Table A.III.2.  GNS/W/120 – CPC, Version 1.0 – EBOPS correspondence.................................................... 124 
IV. ICFA-EBOPS Correspondence Tables............................................................................................................. 150 
Table A.IV.1.  Correspondence between ICFA and EBOPS ........................................................................... 151 
Table A.IV.2.  Correspondence between EBOPS and ICFA ........................................................................... 155 
V.  Extract from the General Agreement on Trade in Services.............................................................................. 160 
VI.  Services Sectoral Classification List - GNS/W/120 ......................................................................................... 161 
VII. The Manual and tourism satellite accounts ...................................................................................................... 167 
 
Glossary .................................................................................................................................................................. 170 
 
Bibliography............................................................................................................................................................ 172 
 
Index........................................................................................................................................................................ 174 
 


 
vii 

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