Reference Specifications for Civil Engineering Work
7, 8, 9 & 10
Complete revision and reissue of the following sections:
Section 7 – Surface Treatments;
Section 8 – Traffic Signs;
Section 9 – Pavement Marking and;
Section 10 – Other Surface Features.
8 & 9
Minor revision of typographical errors from Revision 2.0
‘Blacking out’ clearly identified as an unacceptable practice for line removal
Modification in type of glass beads and anti-skid material specified. Class ‘B’ glass beads removed, Class ’C’ glass beads added, anti-skid material (crushed quartz) requirements modified
Modification and clarification of application rates for drop-on glass beads and anti-skid material, application of raised pavement markers.
Revision of road types/descriptions to align with Brisbane City Council Road Hierarchy Plan, clarification of requirements for materials on bicycle facilities.
Non-flared gating guardrail end terminals requirements modified
Kerb Adaptor requirements revised and updated.
7, 8, 9 & 10
Sections removed to new Reference Specifications for Civil Engineering Works S154 Traffic Signs and Associated Roadside Furniture and S155 Road Pavement Markings
(This page left intentionally blank) TABLE OF CONTENTS
Amendment Register 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS 3
1.1Section Content 5
1.2Cross References 5
2.3Contractor’s Submissions 6
3)FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 6
3.2Placing Base and Sub Base 7
3.3Junctions with Existing Pavements 7
3.4Sub Base and Base Compaction 7
3.5Finishing Base Surfaces 8
3.7Degree Of Saturation 8
4)ASPHALT SURFACING 9
5)CONCRETE KERBS & CHANNELS 9
5.2Placing Concrete 10
5.3Kerb Adaptors 10
5.3.3Load Testing 11
6)Fit appropriate attachments (side formers and base plate) to testing jig. 12
7)Slide movable plate to firmly secure the kerb adaptor in the jig, and then tighten nuts on movable plate. 12
8)Place the testing jig assembly in the hydraulic press unit, with vertical axis of the load bearing block perpendicular to the test surface. Position dial gauge and pointer arm to record the maximum deflection at the underside of the test surface. 12
1)Before the load is applied, take an initial deflection reading at the geometric centre of the kerb adaptor. 12
9)Apply the load at a rate of between 1 kN/s to 5 kN/s up to the serviceability test load. With the load applied, take a second deflection reading at the geometric centre. 12
10)Determine the deflection as the difference between the initial deflection reading and the second deflection reading. 12
1)Before the load is applied, take an initial deflection reading at the geometric centre of the kerb adaptor. 12
11)Apply the load at a rate of between 1 kN/s to 5 kN/s up to the serviceability test load. Maintain the load on the kerb adaptor for a minimum of 5 seconds and then release. Repeat this step 5 times. Take a second deflection reading at the geometric centre. 12
12)Determine the permanent set as the difference between the initial deflection reading and the second deflection reading. 12
1)Immediately following the permanent set measurement procedure, apply the ultimate limit state test load at the same rate. 12
13)Maintain the load for a minimum of 30 seconds. 12
14)Concrete slabs 13
15)surface treatments 13
16)Traffic signs 14
16.1General requirement 14
17)Pavement marking 14
18)other surface features 14
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Type of asphalt surfacing; flexible sub base and base courses; roadworks and surface features such as kerbs, channels, vehicular crossings and the like.
Refer to the following other Reference Specifications:
S110 General Requirements: General technical requirements and interpretation of terminologies.
S120 Quality. Process control testing.
S140 Earthworks: Protection of trees, protection of existing services, site clearing, bulk earthworks, preparation of subgrade, and trenching.
S145 Installation and Maintenance of Utility Services: Requirements for installation of services and utilities utilising trenching and boring.
S154 Traffic Signs and Roadside Furniture: Installation of traffic signs and associated road furniture.
S155 Road Pavement Markings: Installation of road pavement markings
S320 Laying of Asphalt: Placement and compaction of asphalt pavement.
Pavement: That part of the road placed above the subgrade for the support of, and to form a running surface for, vehicular traffic. The pavement comprises one or more layers of material referred to as surfacing, base course and sub base course.
Base course: That portion of the pavement immediately supporting the surfacing. It is and principally intended to directly support the traffic loads.
Sub base course: That portion of the pavement below the base course to provide additional thickness of material required above the subgrade. It is principally intended to distribute to the subgrade the loads from overlying courses.
Refer annexure. Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made at the following stages:
Refer annexure. Do not proceed without approval. Give sufficient notice so that inspection may be made at the following stages:
Compliance testing certificates.
Refer annexure. Submit to the testing authority samples of the following:
Each type of imported fill.
Each type of excavated material, which is to be re-used for constructing flexible pavement in the Works.
Attach a tag to each sample showing relevant information including description, source and nominal size of material.
Imported materials: Notify the supplier, source and description of all imported materials. Submit certification or test results, which establish the compliance of imported materials.
Recycled products: Notify the nature, source, proportions and method of incorporation of any added fillers or binders.
Sub base and base delivery: Submit a delivery docket at the time of delivery for each truckload of sub base and base material. Endorse it to show the location of the material in the Works. Information should include:
Empty and loaded mass of vehicle.
Date and time of dispatch.
Supplier and location of mixing plant.
Registration number of the vehicle.
Nature of material.
Material properties: Refer to S300-Quarry Products.
Base course under bitumen, asphalt and pavers: Use Class 1 material. Provide a minimum 100 mm thick course for local access roads (type A and B pavements) and neighbourhood access roads (type C pavement). Provide a minimum 125 mm thick course for access/ suburban route (type D pavement) and industrial access (type E pavement).
Sub base course: Use Class 2 material (or alternatively Class 1 material) to construct a minimum 100 mm thick top layer. Use Class 3 material (or alternatively Class 2 material) to construct subsequent sub base courses as required to obtain design pavement thickness.
Unsealed roads and shoulders: Class 1 or class 2 soil aggregate.
Material maximum size: Do not use class 1 crushed rock exceeding 25 mm nominal size in base courses where surfacing is spray seal or asphalt less than 50 mm thick.
Cement treated materials (where specified): Spread cement and mix in place using approved specialised plant or mix off-site in a suitable batching plant.
Pavement widening or rehabilitation: Select paving materials to match the characteristics of the existing pavement profile. Use low or high permeable material as appropriate to minimise differential permeability.
3.2Placing Base and Sub Base
Material separation: Place materials of different grading or from different sources in separate layers or separate sections of the work.
Spreading: Spread material in uniform layers. Do not segregate the material.
Layer thickness: 100-150 mm (after compaction) to suit the construction process. Use equal layers in multi layer courses.
Plan the spreading and delivery to minimise the number of joints. Offset joints in successive layers by at least 300 mm.
Existing road surface as subgrade
Carry out minor reshaping to improve vertical alignment as directed. Do not otherwise lower or excavate the existing roadway. After final shaping of the metal box, scarify the existing pavement forming the subgrade before placement of the pavement material.
3.3Junctions with Existing Pavements
Trimming: Where the pavement is to be joined to an existing pavement, remove a strip of the existing pavement at least 300 mm wide for its full depth and trim the edge to an angle of approximately 45o in steps of maximum height 150 mm before placing new pavement material.
3.4Sub Base and Base Compaction
Modified maximum dry density: To AS 12184.108.40.206.
Desirable minimum relative compaction: 95% of modified maximum dry density, to AS 12220.127.116.11. Refer annexure.
Conformance criteria: Refer to S120-Quality Clause 6.2.
Field dry density: To AS 1218.104.22.168, AS 1222.214.171.124 or AS 12126.96.36.199. If using AS 12188.8.131.52, calibrate the surface moisture-density gauge in accordance with AS 12184.108.40.206 before use on site.
General: During spreading and compaction, maintain materials within the range of - 2% to + 1% from the optimum moisture content (modified compaction) appropriate to each material.
If a section of pavement material fails to meet the required conformance criteria as specified in S120 Quality Clause 6.2, remove the non-complying material, replace with new pavement material, and recompact.
High areas: Grade off.
Low areas: Remove to a minimum depth of 75 mm, replace with new material and recompact.
3.5Finishing Base Surfaces
Grade and trim the base course surface to the specified tolerances to produce a hard, dense, tightly packed surface free of lenses, compaction planes and caking.
Give notice before opening the pavement to traffic before the work is completed. Provide adequate means of protection.
General: Provide finished sub base and base surfaces, which are evenly graded between level points, free draining and conform to the required tolerances.
Smoothness: As normally produced by a grader blade (except for batters without topsoil).
Tolerances: The limits in the Table 3.1 apply to the finished surface unless overridden by the requirements for the finished level and thickness of the surfacing.
Table 3.1 – Tolerances
Relative to a 3 m straightedge*
+ 10 mm - 30 mm
* Limits to incorporate due allowance for design shape where relevant
Measurement: Measure crossfall at sub base and base transversely to the centreline. Ensure that the two selected points are more than 2 m apart.
Requirement: Do not depart from the corresponding design crossfall by more than 0.2% absolute. Maintain positive drainage slope towards pavement drainage system.
Other ground surfaces
Absolute level tolerance: ± 50 mm, provided the area matches adjacent construction.
Absolute tolerance: ± 50 mm, except where alignment with an existing road structure is necessary. Join new construction to the existing work in a smooth manner.
3.7Degree Of Saturation
General: Where directed by the Superintendent, determine degree of saturation of the pavement layer if excessive moisture content is suspected. Sources of water entry during the construction phase may include inadequate pavement surface drainage, exposure of surface to rain, pavements left primed but not sealed for extended periods, use of high moisture content for compaction, and excessive watering of the pavement.
Test method: Determine degree of saturation in accordance with Queensland Department of Main Roads test method Q111D. Perform test within a period of 6 hours prior to the placement of the next pavement layer or surfacing.
Moisture content limits: Limit the maximum degrees of saturation to 65% for Class 1 material, and 70% for Class 2 and Class 3 materials. Where the moisture content limits are exceeded during construction, dry back pavement prior to covering with the next layer of pavement or surfacing.
Use Brisbane City Council standard asphalt types in accordance with Table 4.1. Refer annexure.
Nominal aggregate size
Thin wearing course, footpaths, sheet patching, and overlays in local residential streets.
Surfacing course for local access roads (type A and B pavements) and neighbourhood access roads (type C pavement).
Surfacing course for district access/ suburban route (type D pavement) and industrial access (type E pavement). Surfacing and structural courses for arterial route (types F and G pavements).
Unsuitable for final surfacing. Generally used as structural layers for deep lift asphaltic concrete pavements.
Table 4.1 – Mix design applications
* Denotes dense graded asphalt
5)CONCRETE KERBS & CHANNELS
Scope: Kerbs, channels, mowing strips and other linear elements.
Profile: To Standard Drawings BSD-2001, BSD-2002 and BSD-2003. Refer annexure.
Hand placed (in situ) concrete: Grade N25.
Precast concrete: Grade N25.
Machine placed (slip formed or extruded) concrete: Grade S32, minimum cementitious content of the concrete is 320 kg/m3 for all roads.
Surface finish: A mortar surfacing is required on extruded work and a comparable finish required for other placing methods.
Placing and curing: The provisions of S200 Concrete Work Clause 6.0 do not apply. Provide kerbs and channels with no cracks greater than 0.3 mm wide (other than at control joints) and without impairment of slip resistance.
Excavation limit: When excavating the existing pavement to construct the kerb and channel, limit excavation to the minimum required for a mechanical compactor and kerb machine. Excavate at least 75 mm past the back of the kerb.
Pre-wetting: Wet the bedding material immediately before laying concrete without resulting in free water remaining on the surface.
Bedding. Construct bedding from the same pavement material or approved free draining non-plastic material with permeability not less than the adjoining pavement material. Continue pavement at least 75 mm past the extremities of the kerb to ensure stability of the pavement edge. Extend bedding to the bottom of the pavement box, but the minimum bedding thickness must not be less than 75 mm.
Contraction or shrinkage control joints: Install between expansion joints at regular intervals not exceeding 4 m. Construct joints by forming grooves 40 mm deep by 6 mm wide in all exposed surfaces of the concrete kerb and channel. Provide grooves normal to the top surface and square to the alignment of the concrete kerb and channel. Where relevant, locate joints to line up with contraction joints in adjacent structures.
Expansion joints: Provide expansion joints between the concrete kerb and channel and any abutting structures (such as bridges, rigid pavements and concrete slabs), or where directed. Where relevant, locate joints to line up with the expansion joints in adjacent structures. Construct joints by installing 10 mm thick compressible packing for the full width and depth of the concrete kerb and channel. Seal surface of joint with a suitable polyurethane sealant, Thioflex 600 or equivalent.
All other requirements: To AS 2876.
Slump: Use the maximum slump that will maintain shape without support immediately after laying.
Maximum Length: No more than 20 metres in contiguous lengths (including vehicular entrances and kerb ramps).
Cast together: Cast the kerb and channel simultaneously.
Standard: Comply with the relevant Standard Drawings BSD-8111, BSD-8302, BSD-8113 and BSD-8114 regarding placement and shape.
Acceptable materials: Fabricated steel galvanised to AS 4680. Ferrous hollow sections galvanised to AS 4792. Cast iron to AS 1830. Aluminium casting to AS 1874.
Adaptors may be powder coated to AS 4506 (metals other than aluminium) or AS 3715 (aluminium).
Installation: Saw cut 300 mm opening in kerb and fix kerb adaptor flush with the top of kerb in accordance with Standard Drawing BSD-8114. Fill gaps on sides with N25 concrete.
Scope of application: Use Class D load rated (heavy duty) full depth kerb adaptor on all road hierarchy classification. Refer Section 5.3.3 for load testing requirements and methodology. Permanent markings to be in accordance with AS 3996 for the relevant information required.
Responsibility: Roofwater drains are the responsibility of the property owner. The property owner is responsible for the restoration of the affected kerb, verge and footpath at installation.
New work: Near the lower boundary of each lot, which drains towards the road, and clear of existing or planned service pits and meters.
Reconstruction: At each existing roofwater outlet.
A testing jig in accordance with Standard Drawing BSD-8115.
A hydraulic test press capable of applying a load of up to 50 kN.
A dial gauge (with extendable arm) capable of measuring permanent set and deflection to an accuracy of 0.1 mm.
Load bearing block to correspond to the shape of the top surface of the kerb adaptor and maintain a 10 mm minimum clearance from the outer edge of the kerb adaptor. Refer to Figure 5.1.
Note: The load classification table is in accordance with AS 3996.
All kerb adaptors shall be designed to load class D (heavy duty) in accordance with Table 5.1 or Table 3.1 of AS 3996.
For circular openingi (CO) 250 mm, the test loads shall be the serviceability and ultimate design loads given in Table 5.1 or Table 3.1 of AS 3996 multiplied by the appropriate factor.
The Factor is the clear openingii area, in mm2, of the top surface divided by ().
Test loads are calculated to be:
6)Fit appropriate attachments (side formers and base plate) to testing jig.
7)Slide movable plate to firmly secure the kerb adaptor in the jig, and then tighten nuts on movable plate.
8)Place the testing jig assembly in the hydraulic press unit, with vertical axis of the load bearing block perpendicular to the test surface. Position dial gauge and pointer arm to record the maximum deflection at the underside of the test surface.
Measurement of deflection due to the serviceability design load:
Before the load is applied, take an initial deflection reading at the geometric centre of the kerb adaptor.
9)Apply the load at a rate of between 1 kN/s to 5 kN/s up to the serviceability test load. With the load applied, take a second deflection reading at the geometric centre.
10)Determine the deflection as the difference between the initial deflection reading and the second deflection reading.
Measurement of permanent set due to the serviceability design load:
Before the load is applied, take an initial deflection reading at the geometric centre of the kerb adaptor.
11)Apply the load at a rate of between 1 kN/s to 5 kN/s up to the serviceability test load. Maintain the load on the kerb adaptor for a minimum of 5 seconds and then release. Repeat this step 5 times. Take a second deflection reading at the geometric centre.
12)Determine the permanent set as the difference between the initial deflection reading and the second deflection reading.
Sustaining the ultimate limit state design load for a set time:
Immediately following the permanent set measurement procedure, apply the ultimate limit state test load at the same rate.
13)Maintain the load for a minimum of 30 seconds.
The deflection limit and permanent set must not exceed the limits stated in Table 5.2.
Sustaining the ultimate limit state test load without collapse or other similar forms of structural failure.
Maximum Permanent Set
Table 5.2 – Serviceability Load Permanent set and Deflection Limits
General requirement: Channels do not pond water and the kerb line has no noticeable kinks in line or level.
Vertical alignment: 10 mm from the design level at any point.
Horizontal alignment: 25 mm from the design alignment at any point.
Deviation from a 3 m straightedge laid in parallel to the centreline: Maximum 5 mm at any point.
Profile dimensions: The overall width does not differ by more than 15 mm and the dimension at any point does not differ by more than 5 mm.
Scope: Footpaths, bikeways, vehicular crossings, kerb ramps, median infills and other like elements.
Formwork: Provide formwork to sides, construction joints and ends. Class 3 surface finish to AS 3610.
Concrete: All concrete to be N25 grade.
Placing and curing: The provisions of S200-Concrete Work Clause 6.0 do not apply. Provide concrete with no cracks greater than 0.3 mm wide (other than in control joints) and with unimpaired slip resistance and colour uniformity.
Spacing: Space to match service pits and other discontinuity in cross-section.
Construction joints: Locate at contraction or expansion joints.
Contraction or shrinkage control joints: Unless specified otherwise, maximum spacing in unreinforced or nominally reinforced concrete is 4 m. Use weakened plane joints to at least one-third depth and 6 mm wide. Saw cut or use crack inducers with a life of 25 years. Bolster cut joints must be to half depth and faired to surface with a radius of 5 - 6 mm. Where relevant, locate joints to line up with contraction joints in adjacent structures or edge restraints.
Expansion joints: Unless specified otherwise, the maximum spacing in un-reinforced or nominally reinforced concrete is 16 m. Provide additional expansion joints between the concrete slab and abutting edge restraints. Form joints with full depth 10 mm closed cell close linked polyethylene foam 85 – 150 kg/m3 (with 10 mm removable top section) securely taped to the end form. Seal surface of joint with a suitable polyurethane sealant, Thioflex 600 or equivalent.
Pavement edges: Shape new pavement surface to match existing features such as pit covers or driveways to within 5 mm.
Absolute level tolerance: 25 mm.
Maximum deviation relative to a 3 m straightedge: 5 mm.
Discontinuity in pavement surface levels: For pedestrian areas 1.5 mm, for roadways 2 mm.
Maximum deviation of edge from design alignment: 25 mm.
Width: - 0 mm, + 35 mm.
Thickness: - 5 mm, + 30 mm.
Maximum deviation from a 3 m straightedge placed on vertical, or sloping surfaces required to be straight: 10 mm.
Drainage: All surfaces must be free draining.
This clause applies to coloured treatments, texturing, decorative, and high friction surfacing systems on asphalt and concrete surfaces. The requirements for Coloured Surface Treatments have been moved to Reference Specification for Civil Engineering Works S155 Road Pavement Markings.
This clause applies to supply of traffic signs, poles and fitments. The requirements for Traffic Signs have been moved to Reference Specification for Civil Engineering Works S154 Traffic Signs and Associated Roadside Furniture.
This clause applies to installation of general longitudinal and transverse pavement marking. The requirements for Longitudinal and Transverse Pavement Markings been moved to Reference Specification for Civil Engineering Works S155 Road Pavement Markings.
18)other surface features
This clause applies to the supply and installation of guide posts and steel beam guardrail and end terminals. The requirements for Road Edge Guide Posts, Steel Beam Guardrail, Guardrail End Terminals and Energy Absorbing Bollards have been moved to Reference Specification for Civil Engineering Works S154 Traffic Signs and Associated Roadside Furniture.
i Circular Opening is the diameter of the largest circular that can be inscribed in the unobstructed opening in the frame with any removable supporting beams retained in place. (Section 1.4 of AS 3996)
ii Clear Opening is the dimensions of the unobstructed opening for access, in service, without removable supporting beams in place. (Section 1.4 of AS 3996)