Simple form is the verb with no extra endings



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Infinitive or Participle
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Infinitive or Participle?

1. English verbs have many forms and tenses.


The simple form is the verb with no extra endings such as -s, -ed, or -ing. The simple form is also sometimes called the base form or dictionary form. The simple present tense uses the simple form with I, you, we, or they subjects and adds an -s or -es for he, she, and it subjects.
The infinitive form is the word to plus the simple form of a verb.
There are two participle forms, the present participle and the past participle. The present participle is also called the -ing form. It is the simple form plus the -ing ending. The present participle can be used to help make the present and past progressive tenses. It can also be used as a subject or object noun (and then it's called a gerund). In ESL Levels I and II, we practice using the present participle. You'll learn about the past participle in Levels III and IV.
Look at these examples:


Simple Form

Simple Present Tense

Infinitive Form

Present Participle Form

Present Progressive Tense

sleep

I, you, we, they sleep

he, she, it sleeps



to sleep

sleeping

I am sleeping

he/she/it is sleeping

they are sleeping


study

I, you, we, they study

he, she, it studies



to study

studying

I am studying

he/she/it is studying

they are studying

2. When you have two verbs or actions next to each other in a sentence, the second verb usually must be the infinitive form, but sometimes it must be a participle form. Sometimes it can be either form with no difference in meaning. Unfortunately, there are no easy rules to help you know which form is required. You need to learn through practice.

For example, "like" is a verb that can have either an infinitive or a participle follow it:

She likes to buy new clothes. or She likes buying new clothes.

He likes to dance. or He likes dancing.

"want" is a verb that must be followed by a infinitive. It can not be followed by an participle.

She wants to buy new clothes.

He likes to dance.

"enjoy" is a verb that must be followed by a participle. It can not be followed by an infinitive.

She enjoys buying new clothes.

He enjoys dancing.
Idioms with Go + verbing

Idioms are phrases that use vocabulary or grammar in unusual ways. For example, when it is raining a lot, some Americans say, "It's raining cats and dogs." This doesn't mean cats and dogs are falling out of the sky. It is just an idiomatic way of saying that it is raining heavily.


There are many idiomatic expressions with the verb "go" that are common in conversational English. They are actually shorter ways of saying a longer idea. Look at these examples:
1. I like to go to the disco and I like to dance at the disco.

2. I like to go to the disco and dance.

3. I like to go dancing.
Notice that in the first and second sentences, the person says where she or he goes. Notice also that all these sentences use the simple present tense of the verb "like". If it is not important to include information about the location (where), this can be deleted. The verb from the second part of the sentence can come immediately after the verb "go", but the verb changes to the participle (-ing) form.
1. My sister is going to go to the mall and she is going to shop at the mall.

2. My sister is going to go to the mall and shop.

3. My sister is going to go shopping.

4. My sister is going shopping.


Notice that in the first and second sentences, the person says where she or he goes. Notice also that all these sentences use the present progressive of the verb "go" to express the future. In the third sentence, it is not important to include information about the location (where), so it is deleted. The verb from the last part of the sentence comes immediately after the infinitive "to go", but the verb changes to the participle (-ing) form. In the fourth sentence, the present progressive tense is used to express the future and the location is deleted. This is why there are two participles (-ing forms) next to each other. That's okay.
Here are some common phrases with go + verbing:

go shopping go fishing go running

go dancing go sailing go jogging

go bowling go swimming go hiking


VERY IMPORTANT!!!

NEVER put a "to" between the "go" and the "-ing" verb!

Never -> I like to go to shopping. 
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