2. Research methods of astronomy

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The word "astronomy" is derived from the Greek words "astron" - star and "nomos" - law, and literally means "law of the stars". Astronomy is the science which is about the Universe. It studies the position, motion, structure, physical case, chemical composition, formation and evolution of celestial bodies (e.g. stars, sun, moon, planets and their satellites, asteroids, comets, meteors, meteorites) in the sky. Additionally, astronomy studies the formation and evolution of the systems which is formed by celestial bodies (galaxies, nebulae, star clusters), the interstellar environment, the interplanetary environment, and even the universe as a whole.

Astronomy is mainly concerned with solving three issues:

1. The study of the visible and real states and movements of celestial bodies, the determination of the shape and size of celestial bodies, the distances to them;

2. Determination of the structure, physical state and chemical composition of celestial bodies;

3. The study of the formation and evolution of celestial bodies and the systems they form.

2. Research methods of astronomy

Astronomy is the science of observation. In astronomy, all information about celestial bodies is obtained through long-term astronomical observations. In the early times, astronomical observations used to be made by means of human eyes. With the discovery of the telescope, astronomical observations were greatly improved, which greatly enriched the knowledge of celestial bodies.

In 1957, with the launch of the first artificial satellite of the Earth, a new era began in astronomy. Then the launch of interplanetary space stations and orbital observatories, and finally the flight to the moon, went beyond the scientific framework of astronomical observation and began to become partly experimental science.

3. Sections of astronomy

Astronomy can be divided into three main areas:

1. Astrometry - deals with measuring the position, coordinates and time of celestial bodies;

2. Celestial Mechanics - deals with the study of the laws of motion of celestial bodies under the influence of gravity;

3. Astrophysics - deals with the study of the structure, physical state, chemical composition, formation and evolution of celestial bodies.

4. The emergence and main stages of development of astronomy.

Astronomy is the oldest of the exact sciences. Astronomy originated in ancient Greece, Egypt and China. The Greek scientist Philolay said that the earth was spherical before our era (400 B.C.). In the 3rd century BC, Eratosthenes determined the radius of the Earth. In the second century, Hipparchus compiled the first star catalog containing about a thousand stars and discovered the precession of the Earth's axis. In the second century CE, Ptolemy worked out the geocentric system of the world with great mathematical precision and explained many celestial phenomena. Aristarchus of Samos gave the idea of ​​heliocentrism and determined the ratio of distances from the Earth to the Sun and the Moon.
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