Lvii, 1 hplc evaluation of phenolic and polyphenolic acids from propolis



Yüklə 145.75 Kb.
tarix18.04.2017
ölçüsü145.75 Kb.

FARMACIA, 2009, Vol.LVII, 1



HPLC evaluation of phenolic AND POLYPHENOLIC acids from propolis
Anda Natanela Croci, Bogdan Cioroiu, Doina Lazar, Andreia Corciova, bianca IvAnescu, MIHAI IOAN Lazar*

University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr. T. Popa”, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Drugs Analysis, Iasi, Romania

*corresponding author: lmihaiioan@yahoo.com
Abstract

The aim of our study was to evaluate phenolic and polyphenolic acids from different sorts of propolis from Romania and Israel using an HPLC method. We established the working conditions regarding columns, mobile phase. For each type of propolis we have determined the percentage of phenolic and polyphenolic acids within the raw material.



Rezumat

Cercetarea a avut drept scop evaluarea cantitativă printr-o metodă HPLC a acizilor fenolici şi polifenolici din sorturi de propolis recoltate din România şi Israel. S-au determinat condiţiile de lucru în ceea ce priveşte coloanele, faza mobilă. Pentru fiecare determinare s-a menţionat conţinutul procentual în acizi fenolici şi polifenolici, raportat la materialul brut.



Keywords: propolis, HPLC, phenolic acids, polyphenolic acids
Introduction

Propolis or “bee glue” is a resinous product that honey bees, Apis mellifera L., gather from tree buds and accumulate in the hives. Because bees collect propolis from different species of Populus, Betula, Ulmus, Quercus, Salix, Aesculus hippocastanum, Picea, Fraxinus etc. its colour and chemical composition vary considerably [1, 2].

Propolis chemical composition is complex and includes resins, waxes, volatile oils, flavonic compounds, phenol carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, minerals and vegetal impurities [3].

Numerous alcoholic extracts obtained from propolis have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, local anaesthetic, astringent, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerous, cytostatic, hypotensive, immunostimulating. The above mentioned pharmacological activities are attributed to the complex of chemical compounds among which phenolic acids play an important part [4, 5].



Materials and methods

In this study we identified and quantified phenolic and polyphenolic acids from 12 sorts of propolis, 3 from Romania (1-3) and 9 from Israel (4-12) (table I).



Table I

Commercial sorts of propolis taken into analysis



1. Grajduri

7. Tiros -1 (T-1)

2. Raducaneni

8. Tiros -2 (T-2)

3. Dranceni

9. Nes Tioana (N.S.)

4. Kfar Lin – 1 (K L1)

10.Galileea Sea (G.S.)

5. Kfar Lin - 2 (K L2)

11. Oca-Ierusalim (O.I.)

6. Iad Mordechai (I.A)

12. Tel-Aviv (T.A)

All phenolic and polyphenolic acids listed in table II have a high degree of purity (99%).



Table II

Standards of phenolic and polyphenolic acids



1. benzoic acid

9. salicylic acid

2. 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid

10. trans-cinnamic acid

3. p-hydroxybenzoic acid

11. syringic acid

4. protocatechic acid

12. ferulic acid

5. chlorogenic acid

13. gentisic acid

6. caffeic acid

14. R-(-)-mandelic acid

7. o-coumaric acid

15. S (+)-mandelic acid

8. p-coumaric acid

16. vanillic acid

Samples were prepared by extraction in methanol. 1 mL of each methanolic extract was diluted to 25 mL with acetonitrile.

Quantitative determination of compounds was performed using an external standard method. Analyses were carried out on an HPLC Thermo-Surveyor system equipped with automatic sample injection and diode array detector (DAD) (the spectral detection interval was 190-360 nm). The chromatographic data were processed using ChromQuest software, model 4.2.34, equipped with a spectral identification module of the compounds separated on the column.

A Discovery RP-Amide (C16) column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle) was employed initially. For the improvement of the separation method we also used a Zorbax Eclipse XDB – C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm) Agilent Technologies and a Hypersil BDS C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5µm) Thermo – Fisher. Column temperature was 25ºC and injection volume was 20 µl.

Based on molecular spectra of standards we used two wavelengths, these being specific to the absorption maximum corresponding to the identified molecular spectra. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and UV detection was performed at 254 and 280 nm.

There were made several modifications for the optimization of the separating method, such as choosing the column, changing the acid used in the aqueous solution and changing acetonitrile (ACN) proportion in the mobile phase. The best pH value for the separation efficiency was found to be between 2 and 3.

The mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile (Merck) and acetic acid 10% (Merck). A linear gradient was used for elution as described bellow.


time

CH3COOH (10%)

ACN

0

92

8

30

9

91

35

92

8

37

92

8

HPLC chromatogram of standards is presented in figure 1. The typical separation of phenolic acids is shown in table III and expressed in retention times.



Figure 1

HPLC Chromatogram for standards



Table III

Standards retention times



Standard

Retention time (min)

Standard

Retention time (min)

1. benzoic acid

4

9. salicylic acid

12.5

2. 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid

6

10. trans-cinnamic acid

14

3. p-hydroxybenzoic acid

6.5

11. syringic acid

16

4. protocatechic acid

8

12. ferulic acid

17.5

5. chlorogenic acid

8.5

13. gentisic acid

19

6. caffeic acid

11

14. R-(-)-mandelic acid

21

7. o-coumaric acid

11.5

15. S (+)-mandelic acid

22

8. p-coumaric acid

12

16. vanillic acid

27

In the experimental conditions of this study, we established calibration curves for standards and regression coefficients (table IV). The linearity of calibration curves for all compounds was very good (R2>0.99).
Table IV

Calibration curves and regression coefficients for all standards






Standard

Calibration curve

Regression coefficient (R2)



benzoic acid

y = 199237096.64x - 158457.37

0.9993



3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid

y = 3307809.99010x + 662.47539

0.9994



p-hydroxybenzoic acid

y = 51750916.98x + 58043.91

0.9962



protocatechic acid

y = 195863578.8530x - 158400.3749

0.9982



chlorogenic acid

y = 102959211.96x - 124289.45

0.9971



caffeic acid

y = 138369780.954x + 321.016

0.9985



o-coumaric acid

y = 238714527.419x - 163985.627

0.9978



p-coumaric acid

y = 15677369.8768x - 109254.6761

0.9979



salicylic acid

y = 234114810.824x - 298375.080

0.9972



trans-cinnamic acid

y = 105257913.0789x - 3890.0812

0.9984



syringic acid

y = 145009401.8088x + 12875.0680

0.9995



ferulic acid

y = 140197319.236x - 30673.907

1.000



gentisic acid

y = 33264224.725x + 87463.408

0.9999



R-(-)-mandelic acid

y = 51750916.98x + 58043.91

0.9962



S-(+)-mandelic acid

y = 51750916.98x + 58043.91

0.9962



vanillic acid

y = 195863578.8530x - 158400.3777

0.9978

Based on calibration curves and considering the dilutions made, we established the content in phenolic acids for all propolis samples.

Detection limits were determined in accordance with the standard deviations at minimum concentrations and slopes values of each analyzed compound (table V).

Table V

Detection and quantification limits of phenolic and polyphenolic acids



Standards

Quantification limit (mg/mL)

Detection limit (mg/mL)

benzoic acid

0.000198464

0.00005954

3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid

0.008268

0.002481

p-hydroxybenzoic acid

0.00246

0.000738

protocatechuic acid

0.000243019

0.00007291

chlorogenic acid

0.000176

0.00005273

caffeic acid

0.000164

0.00004912

o-coumaric acid

0.00006504

0.00001951

p-coumaric acid

0.000235

0.0000704

salicylic acid

0.000120165

0.0000360

trans-cinnamic acid

0.000055

0.0000167

syringic acid

0.0000865

0.0000259

ferulic acid

0.000039

0.0000117

gentisic acid

0.000262

0.00007856

R-(-)-mandelic acid

0.000246

0.0000696

S-(+)-mandelic acid

0.000235

0.0000700

vanillic acid

0.008457

0.0028877

Results and discussion

The phenolic and polyphenolic acids content from the raw propolis samples determined by HPLC method is listed in table VI and VII.



Table VI

Phenolic and polyphenolic acids content, in Romanian propolis






Content % (g)

Phenolic acids

Grajduri

Raducaneni

Dranceni

benzoic acid

1.38

1.25

1.34

3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid

2.25

2.25

2.50

p-hydroxybenzoic acid

1.30

1.30

1.15

protocatechic acid

2.50

2.00

1.90

chlorogenic acid

1.15

1.00

1.25

caffeic acid

1.56

1.56

1.55

o-coumaric acid

1.12

1.10

1.30

p-coumaric acid

1.10

1.10

0.99

salicylic acid

-

-

-

trans-cinnamic acid

0.89

0.89

1.00

syringic acid

0.38

0.60

0.55

ferulic acid

1.54

1.25

1.15

gentisic acid

1.46

1.46

1.50

R-(-)-mandelic acid

1.45

1.12

1.11

S-(+)-mandelic acid

1.25

1.00

1.05

vanillic acid

0.80

0.55

0.43

Total__20.13__18.43__18.77'>Total

20.13

18.43

18.77



Table VII

Phenolic and polyphenolic acids content, in Israeli propolis






Content % (g)

Phenolic acids

K-L1

K L2

I.A

T-1

T-2

N.S

.G.S

O.I

T.A

benzoic acid

1.22

1.22

1.50

1.50

1.53

1.35

1.45

1.76

1.33

3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid

2.25

2.48

2.55

2.30

2.35

1.15

1.17

1.63

1.65

p-hydroxybenzoic acid

1.30

1.30

1.32

1.40

1.50

1.62

1.32

1.28

1.34

protocatechic acid

1.32

1.45

1.53

1.76

2.10

1.34

1.49

1.22

1.50

chlorogenic acid

1.33

1.50

1.70

1.60

1.55

1.43

1.40

1.35

1.30

caffeic acid

1.70

1.60

1.70

1.60

1.49

1.42

1.39

1.61

1.59

o-coumaric acid

1.22

1.24

1.43

1.30

1.90

1.19

1.24

1.27

1.25

p-coumaric acid

1.42

1.60

1.64

1.54

1.49

1.35

1.40

1.38

1.44

salicylic acid

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

trans-cinnamic acid

1.32

1.27

1.34

1.50

1.39

1.40

1.66

1.62

1.63

syringic acid

0.90

1.09

1.11

0.89

0.90

0.99

0.70

0.65

0.55

ferulic acid

1.23

1.23

1.32

1.40

1.32

1.37

1.51

1.33

1.39

gentisic acid

1.02

1.12

1.30

1.33

1.22

1.24

1.22

1.28

1.26

R-(-)-mandelic acid

1.00

1.19

1.22

1.20

1.19

1.19

1.22

1.18

1.22

S-(+)-mandelic acid

1.12

1.10

1.15

1.29

1.29

1.22

1.34

1.24

1.26

vanillic acid

1.49

1.39

1.50

1.48

1.47

1.50

1.50

1.44

1.57

Total

19.84

20.78

22.31

22.09

22.69

19.76

20.01

20.24

20.28

In all sorts of propolis from Romania and Israel were find the standards used, except salicylic acid. In some of Dranceni (Romania) samples we identify traces of this acid.
Conclusions

HPLC determination of free phenolic and polyphenolic acids from alcoholic extracts revealed the importance of a judicious choice of experimental conditions. Romanian propolis has a phenolic acids content varying between 18.43 and 20.13%. Israeli propolis has a phenolic and polyphenolic acids content varying between 19.76 and 22.69%. The medium content in phenolic acids in Romanian propolis is 19.11% and Israel’s propolis is 20.88%.


References

  1. Bankova V., Popova M., Bogdanov S., Sabatini A. G., Chemical Composition of European Propolis: Expected and Unexpected Results, Z. Naturforsch, 2002, 57c, 530-533

  1. 2. Kosalec I., Bakmaz M., Pepeljnjak S., Analysis of propolis from the continental and Adriatic regions of Croatia, Acta Pharm, 2003, 53, 275–285

  2. Marica M. S., Ivona J., Mornar A., Asja S.B., Petra G., Quantitative Analysis of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Propolis by Two-Dimensional Thin Layer Chromatography, Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC, 2004, 17, 459-464

  3. Nostro A., Cellini L., Di Bartolomeo S., Antibacterial effect of plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori . Phytother. Res., 2005, 19, 198-202

  4. Pereira A.S., Pereira M.,F.A., Trugo L.C., Aquino N.F.R., Distribution of Quinic Acid Derivatives and Other Phenolic Compounds in Brazilian Propolis, Z. Naturforsch., 2003, 58c, 590-593




Manuscript received: 28.07.2008





Поделитесь с Вашими друзьями:


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2019
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə