Arteries=transport blood away from the heart and typically carry oxygenated blood



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Arteries=transport blood away from the heart and typically carry oxygenated blood.

  • Arteries=transport blood away from the heart and typically carry oxygenated blood.

  • Veins=transport blood toward the heart and typically carry deoxygenated blood.

  • Capillaries=microscopic blood vessels that allow exchange between blood and tissues.





Tunica interna (intima)= inner most

  • Tunica interna (intima)= inner most

    • Endothelium
  • Tunica media=middle

    • Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
  • Tunica externa (adventitia)= outermost

    • Vasa vasorum






Elastic arteries

  • Elastic arteries

  • Muscular arteries

  • Arterioles

  • Arterial anastomoses





Characteristics

  • Characteristics

    • Squamous epithelium
    • Basal lamina
    • Pericytes
  • Types

    • Continuous
    • Fenestrated
    • Sinusoidal


Precapillary sphincter

  • Precapillary sphincter

  • Metarteriole-thoroughfare channels

  • True capillaries



Venules

  • Venules

  • Venous sinuses

  • Veins

  • Varicose Veins

  • Venous Anastomoses











Resistance =the opposition to flow and is a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through vessels.

  • Resistance =the opposition to flow and is a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through vessels.

  • Blood Pressure =the force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the blood contained within it (expressed in mm Hg).

  • Blood flow =the volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period.





Blood viscosity





Arterial blood pressure

  • Arterial blood pressure

  • Capillary blood pressure

  • Venous blood pressure



Muscular pump

  • Muscular pump

  • Respiratory pump



Cardiac Output

  • Cardiac Output

  • Peripheral Resistance

    • Increased vasoconstriction = increased BP
    • Increased vasodilation = decreased BP
  • Blood Volume

    • Increased blood volume = increased BP
    • Decreased blood volume = decreased BP


Vasomotor centers of the medulla

  • Vasomotor centers of the medulla

  • Vasomotor tone

  • Baroreceptor-initiated reflexes

  • Chemoreceptor-initiated reflexes

  • Hypothalamus and cerebral cortex





Nitric Oxide

  • Nitric Oxide

  • Endothelin

  • Inflammatory chemicals

  • Alcohol and Nicotine???



Direct Renal Regulation

  • Direct Renal Regulation

    • Blood volume
    • Filtrate production
  • Indirect Renal Regulation

    • Renin
    • Angiotensin II






Taking Pulse

  • Taking Pulse

  • Measuring Blood pressure

  • Respiratory rate

  • Body temperature







Hypertension=140/90 mm Hg or higher

  • Hypertension=140/90 mm Hg or higher

  • Hypotension=100/80 mm Hg or lower





Through Tissues

  • Through Tissues

    • Brain (13%)
    • Heart (4%)
    • Kidneys (20%)
    • Abdominal organs (24%)
    • Skeletal muscles (20%)
    • All others (19%)


Inversely related to cross-sectional area of the blood vessel

  • Inversely related to cross-sectional area of the blood vessel

    • Capillaries have low velocity!
    • Arteries have high velocity!
    • Veins have medium velocity!


Short-term autoregulation:

  • Short-term autoregulation:

  • Long-term autoregulation

    • Angiogenesis




Blood flow (F) is directly proportional to the difference in blood pressure (P) between two points in the circulation and inversely proportional to the peripheral resistance (R) in the systemic flow. Therefore:

  • Blood flow (F) is directly proportional to the difference in blood pressure (P) between two points in the circulation and inversely proportional to the peripheral resistance (R) in the systemic flow. Therefore:

  • F = P

  • R







Hydrostatic pressure (HP) causes filtration or reabsorption of fluids

  • Hydrostatic pressure (HP) causes filtration or reabsorption of fluids

  • Colloid osmotic pressure (OP) results from the presence of large non-diffusible solutes or colloids

  • Net filtration pressure (NFP) = (HPc – HPif) – (OPc-OPif)





Hypovolemic shock =extreme blood loss

  • Hypovolemic shock =extreme blood loss

  • Vascular shock =blood volume normal but poor circulation due to extreme vasodilation

  • Cardiac shock =pump failure



Atherosclerosis=plaque build up within vessel

  • Atherosclerosis=plaque build up within vessel

  • Aneurysm=ballooning of blood vessel

  • Phlebitis=inflammation of a vein








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