ISO 14001: 2015 Environmental management system design in a milk industry
· January 2018
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2018. 15, 2: 135-140
Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng., 20 18. 15, 2 135
Special Issue of International Cooperation for Education about Standardization 2018 (ICES 2018)
ISO 14001: 2015 Environmental Management System
Design in a Milk Industry
, Ayunda Rahmadini, Wildan Trusaji, and Dradjad Irianto
sustainability. In any production system, standards to sustain the quality of products and the
surrounding environment must be taken into consideration. To learn how the two concepts are
executed in practice, an implementation of ISO 14001 in a milk industry is studied. Prior this study,
the milk industry has already been certified by ISO 14001: 2004 to regulate the daily production
and to maintain its environmental concern. In 2015, International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) introduced a new standard for environmental management system by publishing ISO 14001:
2015, which revised the older ISO 14001: 2004. Consequently, to sustain the milk company’s
compliance with regard to the milk product and beverage processing standards, it must prepare
itself to adapt to the new ISO 14001: 2015 standard. This research aims to design an environmental
management system which refers to ISO 14001: 2015, and to draft the mandatory set of documents
and records. The methodology used in this research firstly collects the data by interview and
observation. Further, the collected data is analysed and assessed with respect to the compliance of
ISO 14001: 2015. The result shows that there are 4 unfulfilled clauses and 1 partially-unfulfilled
clause based on the standard. Thus, several transformations and adjustments need to be done within
the milk industry if the company wants to acquire ISO 14001: 2015 standard.
Standards are well-studied aspect in Industrial Engineering curriculum in Indonesia. In
accordance with the criteria of Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET),
environment becomes one key objective in engineering and design [1-2]. This research aims to
study the implementation of standards within environmental boundary.
This research takes place in a milk industry which has been certified by ISO 14001: 2004 and
ISO 22000 food safety standards. Further, the product’s packaging is also certified by Forest
Stewardship Council (FSC) and is sourced from recycled material. To further maintain the quality
of its product and its market share, the company aims to update its ISO 14001 certification to the
This paper demonstrates how an industrial engineering student solves a certification preparation
problem for a certain milk industry, so that the company is able to achieve ISO 14001: 2015
certification. This research also aims to increase the student’s understanding in the field of
standardization with regard to environmental aspects, such that the learning objective of industrial
engineering curriculum is achieved.
Corresponding author; e-mail: email@example.com
Revised 24 October 2018
ISO 14001: 2015 is the newest version of ISO 14001, which revise the previous version of ISO
14001: 2004 . The certification is revised so that ISO remains relevant to the current trends and
challenge that are currently faced by corporations. Further, the update also ensures the
compatibility of ISO 14001 with other ISO standards. In the new ISO 14001: 2015, some key
points are more highlighted compared to its previous version, particularly related to strategic
approach, leadership culture, proactive nature, life-cycle thinking, communication strategy, and a
comprehensive implementation of Plan-Do-Check-Action (PDCA) for the whole system .
This research reviewed every clause in the ISO 14001: 2015 along with the necessary
corresponding documents for each clause. The 10 primary clauses of the standard are listed in
Table 1. Clauses of ISO 14001: 2015 
Terms and Definitions
Understanding the organization and its context, the needs
and expectation of interested parties; determining the scope
organizational roles, responsibilities, and authorities
objectives and planning
Monitoring, measurement, analysis, and evaluation;
General; Nonconformity and corrective action; Continual
Moreover, the difference and similarity between ISO 14001: 2015 and ISO 14001: 2004 is
compared and studied . Further, step-by-step implementation procedure of ISO standards is also
reviewed [7-8]. Lastly, SIPOC-based business process mapping and environmental impact
mapping are also studied .
There are five steps of methodology conducted in this research. First, prior literatures regarding
environmental management system, business process mapping, and general concept on milk
industry are reviewed. Upon retrieving the business process data from the milk industry, the second
step is to map the business process specifically based on the environmental issues addressed by
ISO14001. Further, the business process is mapped for each specific clause in ISO14001. The next
step is conducting gap analysis between the two mappings. Lastly, the implementation of
ISO14001 is designed based on previously-conducted analysis.
ISO 14001: 2015 Environmental Management
System Design in a Milk Industry
Prior analysis, data collection is conducted. There are five primary data: company’s
environmental policy, internal and external issue of the company, scope of Environmental
Management System, the defined stakeholders, and company’s Business Process .
The company has its own vision to maintain its policy of preventing environmental pollution by
operating under a specified environmental-based regulation and constitution. Further, this policy
overlaps with both internal and external issues during its execution, which necessitate the data
regarding company’s issues as well. Further, the scope of environmental management system
includes every operational, production, and service activity that occur within the company. The
stakeholders are defined as top-tier management, employee, society, government, external party,
and consumer; each stakeholder has its own concern and objective, for instance, top-tier
management is mostly concerned with aggregate profit of the company while government is
interested with issues related to permit and taxation. Moreover, the main business process of the
milk industry that is to be standardized by ISO14001: 2015 includes the following business process:
supply management from supplier, production process, packaging process, product sampling,
warehousing and storage, and distribution to end-consumers.
Upon data collection, analysis is conducted. The analysis section consists of three key parts:
clause fulfilment analysis, proposed improvement analysis, and assessment on managerial
4.1. ISO140001: 2015 clauses fulfilment
To assess the preparedness of the company to recertify its environmental management system
compliance, this research identifies the extent of company’s fulfilment in ISO14001: 2015 clauses.
An ISO clause is said to be fulfilled when the company has fully implemented the ISO clause
during their daily operation, while also maintained the required records in accordance with ISO
requirements. Furthermore, an ISO clause is partially-fulfilled when the company has operated in
compliance with ISO clause, yet some records are incomplete. Based on our analysis in this
subsection, some clauses of ISO14001: 2015 are found to be unfulfilled or partially-fulfilled; such
clauses are elaborated on the following sub-sections.
4.1.1. Clause 6.2.1: environmental objectives
To fulfil the requirements of this clause, the milk industry has set its environmental objectives
based on relevant environmental aspects, particularly those relating to strategic, tactical, and
operational aspect of the company. This activity was in accordance with M.L.G.GR.01.00
document within the ISO 14001: 2015 Environmental Management System manuals. However,
these objectives were never truly evaluated nor renewed, thus rendering them obsolete. Currently,
the company merely attempted to comply with minimum environmental criteria that was
constituted by the government. This effort barely helped the company in passing the annual audit
conducted by government officials and left the clause 6.2.1 unfulfilled.
4.1.2. Clause 10.1: general
General improvement attempts have been conducted within every department in the company.
However, the attempts were not defined properly in the quality manuals of the company, thus
leaving the clause unfulfilled.
To evaluate nonconformity within the company, the milk industry has utilized Non-
Conformance Report (NCR) to document irregularities and had it sent to relevant department to
develop root cause analysis and mitigation plan.
Even though this report is made continuously, it has not been formalized properly in the quality
manuals. Further, this report is only made available for internal audit use only. This is mainly due
to the lack of formal procedure that regulates the usage of such documentation, which consequently
makes the clause 10.2 unfulfilled.
The milk industry has attempted to maintain work ethics, uniformity, and effectivity of the
environmental management system of the company as means of continual improvement. However,
these attempts are left undefined in the quality manuals. Thus, this certain clause is not fulfilled
4.1.5. Clause 6.1.2: environmental aspects
In attempts to fulfill the clause, the company has defined M.L.G.GR.01.00 and S.L.G.GR.01.02
for environmental system management mapping and the identification of environmental impact,
risk, and opportunity, as well as planning actions. The latter also includes an impact-based risk
Despite these attempts, the record falsely includes the assessment of workplace health, safety,
and welfare as one of the elements in environmental management system. This assessment should
not be included and is considered irrelevant according to ISO14001. Furthermore, report still miss
several key aspects that should have been considered based on the clause. Thus, Clause 6.1.2:
Environmental Aspects is concluded to be partially-fulfilled.
In the previous subsection, five primary clauses that prohibit the milk industry from acquiring
ISO14001: 2015 certification is analysed. In order to be certified, the company must fulfil the
requirements of each clause may include the following: designing new documents, improving the
quality of current documents, or adjusting the requirement of quality manuals. Based on the
previous analysis, several suggestions of improvement for each clause is summarized in Table 2.
Adjustment on quality manuals
Designing the procedural documents
Improving current procedures
Improving current records
The previously-mentioned improvement suggestions must be verified by relevant stakeholders,
particularly on managerial level. Upon verification, the recommendation must be further validated
on a smaller scale before the policy is fully implemented. By doing so, every potential risk and
outcome could be analysed and mitigated.
Upon fulfilling the standard of ISO14001: 2015, the company must enforce the implementation
on every level of the company. An example of managerial policies that may help in this phase are
obligating every employee to enroll in an ISO14001: 2015 socialization or training that will
motivate them to sustain the values of environmental management system. Further, another
example of good enforcement method is designing a department-based reward/incentive system.
Thus, every department will compete with each other to ensure that their business process complies
with ISO14001: 2015.
There are three key points that are concluded in this research. First, the fulfilment analysis
concludes which clauses are unfulfilled and which ones are partially fulfilled. Second, potential
improvements are recommended to the milk industry to help them to meet the requirement of every
ISO14001: 2015 clause. Lastly, supporting documents are designed and revised to enforce the
implementation phase of the environmental management system.
The milk industry has not fulfilled the following clauses of ISO 14001: 2015, which are Clause
6.2.1 – Environmental Objectives, Clause 10.1 – General, Clause 10.2 – Non-conformity and
Corrective Action, and Clause 10.3 – Continual Improvement. Further, there is one partially-
fulfilled standard of ISO14001 – 2015, which is Clause 6.1.2: environmental aspects.
Several improvements must be made by the milk industry to comply with the standard given by
ISO14001: 2015. This research suggests the following actions: to improve environmental aspects
mapping, to formalize a set of desirable environmental objectives, to define improvement attempts,
non-conformity, and corrective actions, as well as continuous improvement actions, and lastly, to
formalize nonconformity management and its corresponding corrective actions.
Several documents, including forms and Standard Operational Procedure (SOP), are newly-
designed during this research, as follows: SOP of environmental objectives documentation, SOP
of non-conformity management and corrective actions, and SOP of determining environmental
objectives. Furthermore, some documents are improved or revised during this research, which are:
quality manuals with requirements regarding improvement attempts, non-conformity, corrective
actions, and continual improvements; SOP of environmental aspect mapping, and records of
environmental aspect mapping outcome.
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