Critical success factors are those factor that define the organization’s success. Rockart’s (1978)
“CSFs are the limited number of areas in which satisfactory results will ensure successful
competitive performance for the individual, department or organization. CSFs are the few key
areas where "things must go right" for the business to flourish and for the manager's goals to
be attained” (Bullen & Rockart, 1981, p. 7).
of an organization” (p. 11). They are addition to organizational goals and targets by which an
organization’s strategy can be achieved (Caralli et al., 2004). An alternative conception is that CSFs
are derived from strategy and are applied for strategy implementation (Anthony & Govindarajan in
van Veen-Dirks & Wijn, 2004). A similar stand is provided by Ferreira and Otley (2009) whom
postulate CSFs as the goals for achieving organizational vision and mission. Therefore, identifying
and monitoring CSFs is necessary in order to achieve strategic objectives (Ferreira & Otley, 2009).
Determining CSFs can be executed via several data collection methods (Amberg, Fischl & Wiener,
analyse or Delphi study.
The CSF-method of Bullen and Rockart (1981) is based on semistructed interviewing and can be
process, 3. Supporting the information system planning process (Bullen & Rockart, 1981; Rockart,
1978), 4. Evaluating the reliability of information systems, 5. Identifying business treats and
opportunities, and 6. Measuring productivity (Caralli et al., 2004).
For determining the information needs of managers and identification of CSFs, the CSF-method has
been applied. This method is developed by Bullen and Rockart (1981). Caralli et al. (2004) has further
developed the method by constructing guidelines for the method. Goal of the CSF-method is to
structure the data collection and analysis technique for identifying CSFs (Bullen & Rockart, 1981;
Caralli et al., 2004). This method is employed because it is a structured and detailed method (Caralli
et al., 2004); it guides researcher by means of providing steps to take (Caralli et al., 2004); it is a
systemic procedure for identifying managers’ information needs (Bullen & Rockart, 1981; Caralli et
al., 2004); and it can make tacit knowledge explicit (Caralli et al., 2004).
Data collection has been executed by means of semi-structured interviews and a document review
3.1 Data collection
Data collection has been executed by means of semi-structured interviews and a document review.
During interviews one can gain profound knowledge about a subject (Kvale, 1996) and influence the
interview direction, and therefore it is recommended by Caralli et al. (2004). During interviews
managers have the chance to discuss their management challenges and can present their
contribution in achieving the organization’s success (Caralli et al., 2004). Applied interview questions
are derived from Bullen and Rockart (1981); Caralli et al. (2004). Before interviews were executed
participant were informed about the method and what critical success factors are. During interviews
notes were taken. After completing interview analysis the data was presented to and verified by
Additionally a document analysis (Bowen, 2009; Saunders et al., 2009) has been performed.
2009). Documents were analysed for the identification of manager’s goals, objectives, roles,
responsibilities, functions, targets (Caralli et al., 2004). This data represent what managers though to
be important or critical for an organization (Caralli et al., 2004). Reviewed document consisted,
among others, of: organizational presentations; a quality plan; quality objective; and employee
3.2 Data analysis
Data analysis consist out of data reduction, data presentation, concluding and data validation (Miles
& Huberman, 1994). Data analysis starts when interviews are conducted (Kvale in Saunders et al.,
2009) and document are collected. Data reduction and presentations is executed by means of
content analysis in the following procedures: developing activity statements, placing activity
statements in affinity groups, developing supporting themes, developing and analysing critical
happens by recalling data.
3.2.1 Developing activity statements
Activity statements should reflect “something that the organization is already doing, paying attention
to, or monitoring (as established in goals, objectives, or operational activities), or reflect something
that the organization should be doing (such as barriers and challenges to effectiveness)”
After developing activity statements they were clustered (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2013) based
upon affinity (Caralli et al., 2004). “The affinity grouping of activity statements is a way to summarize
the core thoughts and concepts from managers regarding those activities they most need to pay
attention to” (Caralli et al., 2004, p. 74). By means of affinity grouping supporting themes were
constructed. Supporting themes represent groups of activity statements that explain the intention
and essence of said statements based upon common ideas or conceptions (Caralli et al., 2004).
From supporting themes CSFS can be deducted. “CSFs seem to have more clarity, usability, and
impact when they can be reduced to a brief, concise statement that captures the CSF’s essential
intent and description” (Caralli et al., 2004, p. 79). Critical success factors are “the limited number of
areas in which satisfactory results will ensure successful competitive performance for the individual,
department or organization. CSFs are the few key areas where "things must go right" (Bullen &
Rockart, 1981, p. 7).
3.3 Validity & generalizability
Validity of qualitative research can be achieved by employ multiple strategies (Creswell, 2009). I have
employed the following strategies:
Participants gained insight into data analysis and had to validate said data.
Explain researcher bias
I am inexperienced and therefore documented every step I took.
Present negated results
Spend time in the field
I have been present in the organization for more than half a year.
Peer debriefing has been executed with internal and external supervisors.
External supervisors have reviewed this study.
Table 2. Appliance of validation strategies (Creswell, 2009) in this study
Precision and accuracy is strived for in qualitative research. Instead of generalizability (Creswell,
It was necessary to explicate research ethics since I have dealt with managers’ confidential
information. In order to protect research participants and reduce response bias several strategies
posed by Creswell (2009) are applied.
3.5 Data analysis process
The presented results are the identified CSFs of BIE. “CSFs are the limited number of areas in which
are the few key areas where "things must go right" for the business to flourish” (Bullen & Rockart,
1981, p. 7). The identified CSFs are developed at the organizational level (Caralli et al., 2004). They
success of BIE.
4.1 Overview of critical success factors
The following table (table 11) present an overview of the critical success factors of BIE and their core
ideas. This overview provides insight into factors the organization must pay attention to in order to
be successful according to their managers.
The remainder of chapter 4 is confidential.
In the research objective the goal is stated: to determine the critical success factors of the
organization. Furthermore, an advice will be constructed concerning the development of a PMS by
means of providing guidance for the design and implementation process, as well as preconditions
and organizational requirements for developing a PMS. Therefore, in this chapter attention is
addressed to providing an advice.
First, the preconditions found in the literature are presented and applied to BIE. By analysing the
the organization has to undertake can be called upon.
Secondly, the design and developmental process and their requirements is discussed. This is based
model and process methodology can be selected.
Thirdly, I describe the desired execution of the suitable PMS-model and developmental method for
Lastly, I present recommendations aimed at organisational development that are detached from
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