CHAPTER VII. TEXT PRAGMATICS
7.1. THE PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO THE TEXT
The study of text as a means of communicative interaction in the sociocultural context puts forward the problem of text pragmatics as one of the main text parameters. Before we proceed with the discussion of this problem, it is necessary to ascertain some assumptions of linguopragmatics.
Linguopragmatics is one of the trends of communicative linguistics, which in its general sense can be defi ned as a science studying language
factors within the sphere of human activity with an accent on psychological, social and cultural aspects of language functioning. There is a variety of defi nitions concerning linguopragmatics. Summing up all the views, we can point out the following aspects and approaches:
● the relations between a sign and its users (Morris, 1978:8);
● contextual conditionality, language usage, language in the context (Сусов, 1985:4);
● speech impact on the addressee, the factors infl uencing successful and effective communication (Кисилева,1978:8);
● interpretative aspects of speech communication (Арутюнова, 1989);
● language as a tool of a purposeful communicative activity (Грайс,
● the problem of mutual understanding and appropriateness of language
use (Dijk T.A. van, 1977).
It is necessary to note that all these aspects are by no means incompatible.
They present linguopragmatic researches in a variety of domains which are mutually complementary. The analysis of the linguistic literature has shown that linguo– pragmatics embraces a wide range of problems, but for text linguistics the most relevant of them are:
● speech strategies and speech impact;
● pragmatic intentions and their types;
● appropriateness and effectiveness of textual communication.
Before proceeding with the analysis of these problems, it should be stressed that the pragmatic approach to the text requires the term “discourse”.
The notion of discourse has been already discussed (see 6.3).
It should be stressed here that this term is rather ambiguous, and is still under discussion. There are many views, approaches, trends. Despite the multitude of discourse defi nitions the idea of its situational interpretation receives strong scientifi c support. It means that discourse
should be analyzed in a complex combination of social, psychological, cultural conditions of communication. In other words, as Karasik V. has put it, within the framework of linguopragmatics (2004).
So, discourse pragmatics raises the question of situational interpretation
which, in its turn, introduces the notion of a communicative- pragmatic situation. The communicative-pragmatic situation is understood as a complex of external conditions and circumstances of communication. According to E.S.Aznaurova the communicative pragmatic situation can be presented by a chain questions: who – what – where – when – how – why – to whom (1988:38). The most relevant parameters of the communicative- pragmatic situation in the literary discourse are:
● circumstances and place of the communicative act;
● the subject and aim of communication;
● social, ethnic, individual, characteristics of the communicants;
● role and personal relations between the communicants.
In the process of discourse analysis the role of intentional factors as well as those of linguistic personality should be particularly emphasized.