The first computer was invented in 1642 by Blaise Pascal. Computer is a very useful device in modern times



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Computer

Multi-Purpose Computer is a computer that can accomplish any common problem. It is enough to use a different software to change the realm of computer issues.

Computer system refers to any device for automatic processing of data in accordance with relevant programs, or a group of interconnected or related devices.

The first computer was invented in 1642 by Blaise Pascal. Computer is a very useful device in modern times.

As computer engineering, the main component of computer science, covers the stages of computer creation and development, classification and architecture, hardware and software tools, Blaise Pascal (France) in 1642 developed a compilation machine for the history of computer technology. In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz (Germany) created a mechanical arithmetic to perform calculations. In the 1830s Charles Bebic (England) tried to create a computer programmable (analytical machine). Bebicin's ideas later laid the foundation for the creation of universal computers. In 1930 Alan Turing (England) and E. Post (USA) developed theoretical foundations for the creation of universal computers.

The basic principles of modern computers were given by American scientists John F. Neiman, G. Goldstein and A. Beris in the 40s of the 20th century. These principles were implemented in 1946 with the creation of a universal computer called ENIAK in the United States. This date was considered the birth of modern computer technology. Since then, computer technology and technology have begun to develop rapidly and have gone through the following steps:

I generation (1950-1959) - computers with electronic lamps. They were mainly used to solve mathematical problems. Examples: MESM, BESM, Strela, M-3, Minsk-1, M-20.

Second Generation (1960-1969) - Electronic computing machines, the base of which consists mainly of semiconductors. Electronic lamps have been replaced by semiconductor elements - transistors and diodes. Their functional capabilities have significantly increased. BESM-4, Minsk-22, Ural-14 and others.

Generation III (1970-1985) - computers with elemental microelectronics and integrated circuits. The basis of this generation was CBM 360/370. On its basis, in the former USSR, EC ECC and other electronic computing machines were created. One representative of this generation of computers is also a member of the class of small (mini) machines, such as the US RDR, VAX computers and their analogues in the USSR, CM-1/2/3/4/1420, and so on. were machines. Computers of this generation have high productivity and reliability, qualitatively new functional requirements, in other words working with knowledge bases, organization of artificial intelligence systems, user-to-speech and visual communication, simplifying the process of creating the latest software, and so on. should allow. Neuroscientists with new structures and technologies are based on neural networks that model the basic properties of real neurons. Creation of bio and optical neuroscience based on biological and optical technologies with great intellectual potential is also a reality for the near future. In addition, there is a serious need for the creation of supercomputers, since the productivity of computers is insufficient in some cases and in certain areas (nuclear energy, space, military defense, seismology, etc.).

Micro and mini computers created with the technology of the 4th generation (post-1981) large and very large integrated scheme (BIG, CBS). A separate class of this generation is personal computers. Their creation was essentially revolutionary in nature. Examples include IBM PC, IBM XT, IBM AT 286, IBM AT 386, IBM AT 486, and so on.

The V and the next generation are the computers of the present and the future, based on the latest and latest electronic technologies. Computers of this generation have high productivity and reliability, qualitatively new functional requirements, in other words working with knowledge bases, organization of artificial intelligence systems, user-to-speech and visual communication, simplifying the process of creating the latest software, and so on. should allow. Neuroscientists with new architecture and technology are based on neural networks that model the basic properties of real neurons. Creation of bio and optical neuroscience based on biological and optical technologies with great intellectual potential is also a reality for the near future. In addition, there is a serious need for the creation of supercomputers, since the productivity of computers is insufficient in some cases and in certain areas (nuclear energy, space, military defense, seismology, etc.).


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