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Filologiya  məsələləri – №7, 2013

 

 



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АЗЯРБАЙЪАН МИЛЛИ ЕЛМЛЯР АКАДЕМИЙАСЫ 

М.ФЦЗУЛИ адына ЯЛЙАЗМАЛАР ИНСТИТУТУ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ÔÈËÎËÎÜÈÉÀ 

ÌßÑßËßËßÐÈ 

 

№ 7 

 

 

Топлу  Азярбайъан  Республикасы  Президенти  йанында  Али 

Аттестасийа  Комиссийасы  тяряфиндян  рясми  гейдиййата 

алынмышдыр (Filologiya elmləri bюлмяси, №13).

 

Азярбайъан  Республикасы  Ядлиййя  Назирлийи  Мятбу 



няшрлярин рейестриня  дахил едилмишдир. Рейестр №3222. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

«Елм вя тящсил» 

Бакы – 2013 

 

Filologiya  məsələləri – №7, 2013

 

 



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Ъурналын тясисчиляри: Азярбайжан Милли Елмляр Академийасы Ялйазмалар Институту вя  

                                  «Елм вя тящсил» няшриййаты  

 

 

 

 

 

 

РЕДАКСИЙА  ЩЕЙЯТИ:  академик  Аьамуса  Ахундов,  академик  Васим 

Мяммядялийев,  академик  Иса  Щябиббяйли,  АМЕА-нын  мцхбир  цзвц,  ф.е.д.,  проф. 

Тофиг Щаъыйев, АМЕА-нын мцхбир цзвц, ф.е.д., проф. Низами Ъяфяров, АМЕА-нын 

мцхбир цзвц, ф.е.д., проф. Теймур Кяримли, АМЕА-нын мцхбир цзвц, ф.е.д., проф. 

Ябцлфяз Гулийев, ф.е.д., проф. Fəxrəddin Veysəlov, ф.е.д., проф. Вилайят Ялийев, ф.е.д., 

проф.  Гязянфяр  Казымов,  ф.е.д.,  проф.  Рцфят  Рцстямов,  ф.е.д.,  проф.  Мясуд  Мащ-

мудов,  ф.е.д.,  проф.  Мцбариз  Йусифов,  ф.е.д.,  проф.  Гязянфяр  Пашайев,  ф.е.д.,  проф. 

Ябцлфяз Ряъябли, ф.е.д., проф. Nizami Xudiyev, ф.е.д., проф. Ъялил Наьыйев, ф.е.д., проф. 

Надир Мяммядли, фil.ü.e.d. Paşa Kərimov, ф.е.д., prof.  Камиля Вялийева, ф.е.д. prof. 

Азадя Мусайева, ф.е.д. Мющсцн Наьысойлу, фil.ü.f.d. Нязакят Мяммядли. 

 

 

 

 

Бурахылыша мясул: filologiya üzrə elmlər doktoru Paşa Kərimov 

Ряйчи: filologiya elmləri doktoru, professor Надир Мяммядли 

 

Филолоэийа мясяляляри. Бакы, 2013, № 7 

 

 

 

 

 

ISSN 2224-9257 

 

 



© ”Elm və təhsil” nəşriyyatı, 201

 

 



www.filolologiyameseleleri.com

 

Filologiya  məsələləri – №7, 2013

 

 



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ÄÈË×ÈËÈÊ 



 

 

NIGAR VELİYEVA 

                                                           Azerbaijan University of Languages, 

               Doctor of Science, professor  

                                  E-mail: nigar_veliyeva_professor@rambler.ru 



 

 HISTORY OF THE TRANSNATIONAL PROCESSES AND THEIR’S 

INFLUENCE ON THE ENRICHMENT OF WORD-STOCK OF ENGLISH  

 

Key words: the borrowings, cognates, the international words. 

Ключевые слова: заимствования, родственные, иноязычные слова.  

Açar sözlər: alınmalar, qohum, xarici sözlər. 

 

English vocabulary, which is one of the most extensive amongst the world’s 

languages, contains an immense number of words of foreign origin. Explanations 

for this should be sought in the history of the language which is closely connected 

with the history of the nation speaking the language. In order to have a better 

understanding of this, it will be necessary to go through a brief survey of certain 

historical facts, relating to different epochs.  

In the first century B.C. most of the territory known to us as Europe is 

occupied by the Roman Empire. Among the inhabitants of the continent are 

Germanic tribes, “barbarians” as the arrogant Romans call them. Theirs is really a 

rather primitive stage of development, especially if compared with the high 

civilization and refinement of Rome. They are primitive cattle-breeders and know 

almost nothing about land cultivation. Their tribal languages contain only Indo-

European and Germanic elements. The latter fact is of some importance for the 

purposes of our survey.       

Then the event, which brings an important change, comes. After a number of 

wars between the Germanic tribes and the Romans these two opposing peoples 

come into peaceful contact. Trade is carried on, and the Germanic people gain 

knowledge of new and useful things. The first among them are new things to eat. It 

has been mentioned that Germanic cattle-breeding was on a primitive scale. Its only 

products known to the Germanic tribes were meat and milk. It is from the Romans 

that they learn how to make butter and cheese and, as there are naturally no words 

for these foodstuffs in their tribal languages, they are to use the Latin words to name 

them. It is also to the Romans that the Germanic tribes owe the knowledge of some 

new fruits and vegetables of which they had no idea before, and the Latin names of 

these fruits and vegetables enter their vocabularies reflecting this new knowledge. 

For example:  

 

pepper  – Lat. piper     



beet – Lat. beta 

cherry – Lat. cerasum  

pear – Lat. pirum  


 

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plum – Lat. prunus 

pea – Lat. pisum  

plant – Lat. planta 

cup – Lat. cuppa  

kitchen – Lat. coquina  mill – Lat. molina 

port – Lat. portus 

wine – Lat. vinum 

street – Lat. strata via 

wall– Lat. vallum  

priest – Lat. presbyter 

nun – Lat. nonna 

bishop– Lat. episcopus  candle – Lat. candela 

monk – Lat. monachus  school – Lat. schola  

scholar – Lat. scholaris magister – Lat.magister  

 

The fact that all these borrowings occurred is in itself significant. It was cer-



tainly important that the Germanic tribal languages gained a considerable number of 

new words and were thus enriched.  

What was even more significant? It was that all Latin words were destined to 

become the earliest group of borrowings in the future English language, which was 

much later built on the basis of the Germanic tribal languages. 

Which brings us to another epoch, much closer to the English language, as we 

know it, both in geographical and chronological terms?  

In the fifth century A.D. several of the Germanic tribes, the most numerous 

amongst them being the Angels, the Saxons and the Jutes, migrated across the sea, 

and now known as the English Channel to the British Isles. There they were 

confronted by the Celts, the original inhabitants of the Isles. The Celts desperately 

defended their lands against the invaders, but they were no match for the military-

minded Tetons and gradually yielded most of their territory. They retreated to the 

North and South-West, modern Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. Through their nu-

merous contacts with the defeated Celts, the conquerors got to know and assimila-

ted a number of Celtic words in modern English, for example: “bald, down, glen, 

druid, bard, and cradle”. Especially numerous among the Celtic borrowings were 

place names, names of rivers, bills, etc. The Germanic tribes occupied the land, but 

the names of many parts and features of their territory remained Celtic. For instan-

ce, the names of rivers “Avon, Exe, Esk, Usk, Ux” originate from Celtic words 

meaning “river” and “water”.   

Ironically, even the name of the English capital originates from Celtic “Llyn + 

dun” in which “llyn” is another Celtic word for “river” and “dun” stands for “a 

fortified hill”, the meaning of the whole being “fortress on the hill over the river”.  

Some Latin words entered the Anglo-Saxon languages through Celtic, among 

them such widely-used words as “street” – Lat. strata via and “wall” – Lat. vallum. 

The seventh century A.D. – was significant for the Christianization of Eng-

land. Latin was the official language of the Christian church, and consequently, the 

spread of Christianity was accompanied by a new period of Latin borrowings. 

These no longer came from spoken Latin as they did eight centuries earlier, but 

from church Latin. Also, these new Latin borrowings were very different in 

meaning from the earlier ones. They mostly indicated persons, objects and ideas as-

sociated with church and religious rituals. For example, “priest” – Lat. presbyter, 

“bishop” – Lat. episcopus, “monk” – Lat. monachus, “nun” – Lat. nonna, “candle” 

– Lat. candela.  


 

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Additionally, there were also educational terms. It was quite natural that these 

words were also Latin borrowings, for the first schools in England were church 

schools, and the first teachers – priests and monks. So, the very words “school, 

scholar, magister” is Latin borrowings.  

From the end of the eighth century to the middle of the eleventh century Eng-

land underwent several Scandinavian invasions which inevitably left their trace on 

English vocabulary. Here are some examples of early Scandinavian borrowings: 

“call, take, cast, die, law, ill, loose, low, weak”, and also: husband - Sc. hus + bondi, 

i.e. “inhabitant of the house”; window – Sc. vindauga, i.e. “the eye of the wind”.  

Some of the words of this group are easily recognizable as Scandinavian bor-

rowings by initial “sk-” combination: “sky, skill, skin, ski, skirt”. 

Certain English words changed their meanings under the influence of Scan-

dinavian words of the same root. So, in the Old English “bread” which meant “pie-

ce” acquired its modern meaning by association with the Scandinavian “brand”.  

The Old English “dream” which meant “joy” assimilated the meaning of the 

Scandinavian “draumr”. Confer the German “Traum” – dream and Russian 

“дрёма”. 

1066 year is famous by the Battle of Hastings, when the English were 

defeated by the Normans under William the Conqueror. It comes the eventful epoch 

of the Norman Conquest. The epoch can well be called eventful not only in nation-

nal, social, political and human terms, but also in linguistic. England became a bi-

lingual country, and the impact on the English vocabulary made over this two-hun-

dred years period is immense. French words from the Norman dialect penetrated 

every aspect of social life. Here is very brief list of examples of Norman-French 

borrowings:  

 

Educational terms 



Administrative words  Legal terms  Military terms 

         Pupil 

       government 

    Court 

      army 

         Lesson 

       state 

    judge  

      soldier 

 

         Library 



       parliament 

      justice 

      War 

         Science 

       council   

    Crime 

      officer 

         pen  

       power 

    prison 

      battle    

         Pencil 

 

 

      enemy 



 

Everyday life was not unaffected by the powerful influence of French words. 

Numerous terms of everyday life were also borrowed from French in this period

such as: “table, saucer, dinner, supper, river, autumn, uncle”, etc. 

When we remember the Renaissance period, it is necessary to mention that in 

England as in all European countries, this period was marked by significant 

developments in science, art and culture, and also by a revival of interest in the 

ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome and their languages. Hence, there occur-

red a considerable number of Latin and Greek borrowings. In contrast to the earliest 

Latin borrowings (the first century B.C.), the Renaissance ones were rarely concrete 

names. They were mostly abstract words, such as: “major, minor, filial, moderate, 

intelligent, permanent, to elect, to create”. There were naturally numerous scientific 

and artistic terms, such as: “datum, status, phenomenon, philosophy, method, mu-


 

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sic”. The same is true of Greek Renaissance borrowings, such as: “atom, cycle, 

ethics, and esthete”.   

The Renaissance was a period of extensive cultural contacts between the 

major European states. Therefore, it was only natural that new words also entered 

the English vocabulary from other European languages. The most significant were 

French borrowings. This time they came from the Parisian dialect of French and are 

known as Parisian borrowings, such as: “regime, police, machine, ballet, matinee, 

scene, bourgeois, and technique”. 

Italian also contributed a considerable number of words to English, such as: 

“piano, violin, opera, alarm, colonel”.  

There are certain structural features which enable us to identify some words 

as borrowings and even to determine the source language. Previously it was estab-

lished that the initial “sk-” usually indicates Scandinavian origin and we can also 

recognize the Latin or French words by certain suffixes, prefixes or endings.  

The historical survey above is far from complete. Our aim is just to give a 

very general idea of the ways in which English vocabulary developed and of the 

major events through which it acquired its vast modern resources.     

On a straight vocabulary count, considering the high percentage of borrowed 

words, one should have to classify English as a language of international origin or, at 

least, a Romance one as French and Latin words obviously prevail. But here another 

factor comes into play, the relative frequency of occurrence of words, and it is under 

this heading that the native Anglo-Saxon heritage comes into its own. The native 

element in English comprises a large number of high-frequency words like the 

articles, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliaries and also words denoting 

everyday objects and ideas, such as: “house, child, water, go, come, eat, good, bad”. 

Furthermore, the grammatical structure is essentially Germanic having 

remained unaffected by foreign influence. It is probably of some interest to mention 

that at various times purists have tried to purge the English language of foreign 

words, replacing them with Anglo-Saxon ones. One slogan created by these 

linguistic nationalists was: “Avoid Latin derivatives; use brief, terse Anglo-Saxon 

monosyllables”. The irony is that the only Anglo-Saxon word in the entire slogan is 

“Anglo-Saxon”.  

Now let us turn to the first column of the table representing the native 

element, the original stock of the English vocabulary. The column consists of three 

groups, only the third being dated: the words of this group appeared in the English 

vocabulary in the fifth century or later, that is, after the Germanic tribes migrated to 

the British Isles. As to the Indo-European and Germanic groups, they are so old that 

they cannot be dated.  

It was mentioned in the historical survey that the tribal languages of the 

Angels, the Saxons, the Jutes, by the time of their migration, contained only the 

words of Indo-European and Germanic roots plus a certain number of the earliest 

Latin borrowings. By the Indo-European elements are meant the words of roots 

common to all or most languages of the Indo-European group. English words of this 

group denote elementary concepts without which no human communication would 

be possible.  



 

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The following groups can be identified: 1. Family relations: father, mother, 

brother, son, daughter; 2. Parts of the human body: head, hand, arm, finger, bone, 

foot, nose, lip, heart; 3. Animals: cow, swine, goose, bear, fox, calf; 4. Plants: tree, 

birch, corn, oak, fir, grass; 5. Time of day: day, night; 6. Heavenly bodies: sun, mo-

on, star; 7. Adjectives: red, green, blue, grey, white, small, thick, high, new, glad, 

sad, old, good; 8. Numerals: from one to hundred; 9. Pronouns: personal (except 

“they” which is a Scandinavian borrowing), demonstrative; 10. Verbs: be, stand, sit, 

eat, know, see, hear, speak, tell, say, answer, make, give, drink; 11. Natural phenol-

mena: rain, frost; 12. Seasons of the year: winter, spring, summer; 13. Landscape 

features: sea, land; 14. Human dwellings and furniture: house, room, bench; 15. 

Sea-going vessels: boat, ship. 

 It has mentioned that the English proper element is, in certain respects

opposed to the first two groups. Not only can it be approximately dated, but these 

words have another distinctive feature: they are specifically English having no 

cognates in other languages whereas for Indo-European and Germanic words such 

cognates can always be found as, for instance, for the following words of the Indo-

European group.  

 

 

 



 

 

 



Here are some examples of the English proper words. These words stand quite 

alone in the vocabulary system of Indo-European languages, for example: bird, boy, 

girl, lord, lady, woman, daisy, always. 

“Autumn” is a French borrowing. Cognates - words of the same etymological 

root, of common origin of “native servant”. The explanation is simple: these words 

have been borrowed by Russian from English and therefore are not cognates of their 

English counterparts.  

It should be taken into consideration that the English proper element also 

contains all the later formations, that is, words which were made after the fifth 

century according to English word-building patterns both from native and borrowed 

morphemes. For instance, the adjective “beautiful” built from the French borrowed 

root and the native suffix belongs to the English proper element. It is natural that the 

quantity of such words is immense.  

When we think: “why are the words borrowed?”– it is necessary to unders-

tand that this question partially concerns the historical circumstances which 

stimulate the borrowing process. Each time two nations come into close contact, 

therefore, certain borrowings are a natural consequence. The nature of the contact 

may be different. It may be wars, invasions or conquests when foreign words are in 

effect imposed upon the reluctant conquered nation. There are also periods of peace 

when the process of borrowing is due to trade and international cultural relations.  

These latter circumstances are certainly more favorable for stimulating the 

borrowing process, for during invasions and occupations the natural psychological 

reaction of the oppressed nation is to reject and condemn the language of the op-

Star 


Germ. Stern 

Lat. Stella        ------- 

Gr. aster 

Sad Germ. 

Satt  Lat. 

satis Russ. 

сыт Snscr. 

sd- 


Stand  Germ. stehen  Lat. stare 

Russ. cтоять 

Snscr.stha- 


 

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pressor. In this respect the linguistic heritage of the Norman Conquest seems 

exceptional, especially if compared to the influence of the Mongol-Tartar Yoke on 

the Russian language. The Mongol-Tartar Yoke also represented a long period of 

cruel oppression, yet the imprint left by it on the Russian vocabulary is 

comparatively insignificant. 

The difference in the consequences of these evidently similar historical events 

is usually explained by the divergence in the level of civilization of the two 

conflicting nations. Russian civilization and also the level of its language 

development at the time of the Mongol-Tartar invasion were superior to those of the 

invaders. That is why the Russian language successfully resisted the influence of a 

less developed language system. On the other hand, the Norman culture of the 

eleventh century was certainly superior to that of the Saxons. The result was that an 

immense number of French words forced their way into English vocabulary. Yet, 

linguistically speaking, this seeming defeat turned into a victory. Instead of being 

smashed and broken by the powerful intrusion of the foreign element, the English 

language managed to preserve its essential structure and vastly enriched its 

expressive resources with the new borrowings.  

But all this only serves to explain the conditions which encourage the borro-

wing process. The question of why words are borrowed by one language from anot-

her is still unanswered. Sometimes it is done to fill a gap in vocabulary. When the 

Saxons borrowed Latin words for “butter, plum, beet”, they did it because their own 

vocabularies lacked words for these new objects. For the same reason the words 

“potato” and “tomato” were borrowed by English from Spanish when these ve-

getables were first brought to England by the Spaniards.  

There is also a great number of words which are borrowed for other reasons. 

There may be a word or even several words which expresses some particular 

concept, so that there is no gap in the vocabulary and there does not seem to be any 

need for borrowing. Yet, one more word is borrowed which means “almost” - the 

same, “almost”, but not exactly. It is borrowed because it represents the same 

concept in some new aspect, supplies a new shade of meaning or a different emotio-

nal coloring. This type of borrowing enlarges groups of synonyms and greatly 

provides to enrich the expressive resources of the vocabulary. That is how the Latin 

“cordial” was added to the native “friendly”, the French “desire” – “to wish”, the 

Latin “admire” and the French “adore” – “to like” and “love”.  

It may be appear the question: do borrowed words change or do they remain 

the same? The eminent scientist Maria Pei put the same question in a more colorful 

way: “Do words when they migrate from one language into another behave as peop-

le do under similar circumstances?” or “Do they remain alien in appearance, or do 

they take out citizenship papers?”  

Most of them take the second way, that is, they adjust themselves to their new 

environment and get adapted to the norms of the recipient language. They undergo 

certain changes which gradually erase their foreign features, and, finally they are as-

similated. Sometimes the process of assimilation develops to the point when the fo-

reign origin of a word is quite unrecognizable. It is difficult to believe now that such 

words as “dinner, cat, take, cup” are not English by origin. Others, though well as-

similated, still bear traces of their foreign background. Distance and development, 


 

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for instance, are identified as borrowings by their French suffixes, “skin” and “sky” 

by the Scandinavian initial “sky, police, regime” by the French stress on the last 

syllable. 

Borrowed words are adjusted in the three main areas of the new language sys-

tem: the phonetic, the grammatical and the semantic. The lasting nature of phonetic 

adaptation is best shown by comparing Norman-French borrowings to later ones. 

The Norman borrowings have for a long time been fully adapted to the phonetic 

system of the English language: such words as “table, plate, courage, chivalry” bear 

no phonetic traces of their French origin. Some of the later (Parisian) borrowings, 

even the ones borrowed as early as the fifteenth century. Still sound surprisingly 

French, such as: “regime, valise, matinee, café, ballet”. In these cases phonetic 

adaptation is not completed.  

Grammatical adaptation consists in a complete change of the former paradigm 

of the borrowed word. If it is a noun, it is certain to adopt, sooner or later, a new 

system of declension; if it is a verb, it will be conjugated according to the rules of 

the recipient language. Yet, this is also a lasting process. The Russian noun 

“пальто” was borrowed from French early in the nineteenth century and has not yet 

acquired the Russian system of declension.The same can be said about such English 

Renaissance borrowings as “datum - data” in plural, “phenomenon - phenomena”, 

“criterion - criteria” whereas earlier Latin borrowings such as “cup, plum, street, 

wall” were fully adapted to the grammatically system of the language long ago.  

By semantic adaptation is meant adjustment to the system of meanings of the 

vocabulary. It has been mentioned that borrowing is generally caused either by the 

necessity to fill a gap in the vocabulary or by a chance to add a synonym conveying 

an old concept in a new way. The process of borrowing is not always so purposeful, 

logical and efficient as it might seem at first sight. Sometimes a word may be bor-

rowed “blindly”, so to speak, for no obvious reason, to find that it is not wanted 

because there is no gap in the vocabulary or in the group of synonyms which it 

could conveniently fill. Quite a number of such “accidental” borrowings are very 

soon rejected by the vocabulary and forgotten. But there are others which manage to 

take root by the process of semantic adaptation. The adjective “large”, for instance, 

was borrowed from French in the meaning of “wide”. It was not actually wanted, 

because it fully coincided with the English adjective “wide” without adding any 

new shades or aspects to its meaning. This could have led to its rejection. “Large” 

managed, to establish itself very firmly in the English vocabulary by semantic 

adjustment. It entered another synonymic group with the general meaning of “big in 

size”. At first it was applied to objects characterized by vast horizontal dimensions, 

thus retaining a trace of its former meaning and now though still bearing some 

features of that meaning, is successfully competing with big having approached it 

very closely both in frequency and meaning.  

The adjective “gay” was borrowed from French in several meanings at once 

“noble of birth”, “bright, shining”, “multicolored”. Rather soon it shifted its ground 

developing the meaning “joyful, high-spirited” in which sense it became a synonym 

of the native “merry” and in some time left it far behind in frequency and range of 

meaning. This change was again caused by the process of semantic adjustment: 

there was no place in the vocabulary for the former meanings of “gay”, but the 


 

Filologiya  məsələləri – №7, 2013

 

 



10

group with the general meaning of “high spirits” obviously lacked certain shades 

which were successfully supplied by “gay”. 

The adjective “nice” was a French borrowing meaning “silly” at first. The 

English change of meaning seems to have arisen with the use of the word in expres-

sions like “a nice distinction”, meaning first “a silly, hair-splitting distinction”, then 

a precise one, ultimately an attractive one. The original necessity for change was 

caused once more by the fact that the meaning of “foolish” was not wanted in the 

vocabulary and therefore “nice” was obliged to look for a gap in another semantic 

field.   

It must be mentioned that it is often the case that a word is borrowed by se-

veral languages and not just by one. Such words usually convey concepts which are 

significant in the field of communication. Many of them are of Latin and Greek 

origin. Most names of sciences are international, for example, philosophy, mathe-

matics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, linguistics, and lexicology. There are 

also numerous terms of art in this group: music, theatre, drama, tragedy, comedy, 

artist, primadonna.   

It is quite natural that political terms frequently occur in the international 

group of borrowings, such as: politics, policy, revolution, progress, democracy, 

communism, anti-militarism.  

In twentieth century scientific and technological advances brought a great 

number of new international words, such as: atomic, antibiotic, radio, television, 

and sputnik.  

The English language also contributed a considerable number of international 

words to world languages. Among them the sports terms occupy a prominent posi-

tion, for example: football, volleyball, baseball, hockey, cricket, rugby, tennis, golf.   

Fruits and foodstuffs imported from exotic countries often transport their names 

too and being simultaneously imported to many countries, become international, such 

as: coffee, cocoa, chocolate, Coca-Cola, banana, mango, avocado, grapefruit. 

It is important to note that international words are mainly borrowings. The 

outward similarity of such words as the English “son”, the German “Sohn” and the 

Russian “cын” should not lead one to the quite false conclusion that they are 

international words. They represent the Indo-European group of the native element 

in each respective language are cognates, that is the words of the same etymological 

root and not borrowings.  

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