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Davydova N.I., Bychkova N.V., Kobiashvili M.G., Mikhailova I.A. Analiz pokazatelei mestnogo immuniteta pri nekotorykh variantakh techeniya i iskhoda khronicheskogo vospaleniya verkhnikh otdelov zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta [Indicators of tissue immunity in different types of flow and clinical outcome of chronic inflammation of the upper gastrointestinal tract]
The Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia

(Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2)


Davydova Nataliya Ivanovna – PhD Med. Sci., senior research associate, Clinical Immunology Lab, the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia (Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2);

Bychkova Nataliya Vladimirovna – PhD Biol. Sci, senior research associate, Clinical Immunology Lab, the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia (Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2); e-mail: BNV19692007@yandex.ru;

Kobiashvili Malkhaz Georgievich – Dr. Med. Sci. Prof., Head of Endoscopy Department, the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia (Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2); e-mail: malcom2@yandex.ru;

Mikhailova Irina Anatol'evna – endoscopist, Endoscopy Department, the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia (Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2); e-mail: mihailova-i@yandex.ru


Abstract. Study results on indicators of tissue immunity in patients with different variants of chronic gastritis, gastric polyps and neoplasia are presented. The ratio of lymphocyte subsets of the stomach mucous is characterized by a predominance of T-lymphocytes and specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Count of B-, NK-cells and minor lymphocyte subsets is determined by patterns of the immune response in various pathological processes of the gastroduodenal zone.

Keywords: chronic gastritis, gastric epithelial neoplasms, gastric cancer, indicators of tissue immunity, proliferation index of the epithelial cells of the gastric, flow cytometry.
References

  1. Aruin L.I. Novaya mezhdunarodnaya klassifikatsiya displazii slizistoi obolochki zheludka [The new international classification of dysplasia of the gastric mucosa]. Rossiiskii zhurnal gastroenterologii, gepatologii i koloproktologii [The Russian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Coloproctology]. 2002. N. 12. Pp. 15–17. (In Russ.)

  2. Khaitov R.M., Ignat'eva G.A., Sidorovich I.G. Immunologiya [Immunology]. Moskva. 2000. 458 p. (In Russ.)

  3. Tsimmerman Ya.S. Gastroenterologiya [Gastroenterology]. Moskva. 2012. 800 p. (In Russ.)

  4. Yarilin A.A. Immunologiya [Immunology]. Moskva. 2010. 749 p. (In Russ.)

  5. Blaser M.J. Helikobacter pylory and gastric disease. BMJ. 1998. Vol. 316, N 7143. Pp. 1507–1510.

  6. Guarner J., Baetlett J., Seitz R. [et al.]. Cell proliferation and inflammation on biopsy samples with multifocal atrophic gastritis before and 2 year after Helicobacter pylori eradication. Arch. Pathol. Lab Med. 2005. Vol. 129, N 11. P. 1451–1456.

  7. Ormerod M.G. [et al.]. Consensus report of the task force on standardization of DNA flow cytometry in clinical pathology. Anal. Cell Pathol. 1998. Vol. 17. Pp.103–110.

  8. Correa P. The gastric precancerous process. Cancer Surv. 1983. Vol. 2. Pp. 437–450.

  9. Correa P. Human gastric cancerogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process. Cancer rev. 1992. N 52. Pp. 6735–6740.

  10. Lu A.P., Zhang S.S., Zha O.L. [et al.]. Correlatio between CD4,CD8 cell infiltration in gastric mucosa, H. pylori infection and symptoms in patients with chronic gastritis. Wold J. Gastroenterol. 2005. Vol. 28. Pp. 2486–2490.

  11. Shankey T.V., Rabinovitch P.S., Bagwell B. [et al.]. Guidelines for implementation of clinical DNA cytometry. Cytometry. 1993. Vol. 14. Pp. 472–477.

  12. Smythies L.E., Waites K.B., Lindsey J.R., Harris P.R. Helicobacter pylori–induced mucosal inflammation is TH-1 mediated and exacerbated in IL-4, but not IFN-gamma, genedeficient mice. J. Immunol. 2000. Vоl. 165. Pp. 1022–1029.

  13. Brajsa K., Ferencic Z., Katicic M. [et al]. Influence of H.pylori infection and eradication on p53, cerbB-2 and Ki-67 in gastric mucosa. Hepatogastroenterology. 2006 Vol. 53. Pp. 968– 972.

  14. Kovama S. Apoptotic depletion of infiltrating mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by H. pylori-infected gastric mucosal epithelium human glandular stomach as a site of immune privilege. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2000. Vol. 45. Pp. 773–780.

  15. Nagayo T. Precursors of human gastric cancer: their frequencies and histological characteristics : Pathophysiol. Carcinogenesis Dig. Org. Proc. 7th Int. Symp. Princess Takamatsu. Cancer Res. Fund. 1977. Рp. 151–160.

  16. Niimi C., Ohmiya N.., Niwa Y. [et al.]. Use fullness of p53 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical analysis for preoperative diagnosis of extremely well–differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 2002. Vol. 118. Pp. 683–692.

Received 11.01.2013

Mediko-biologicheskie i sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie problemy bezopasnosti v chrezvychaynykh situatsiyakh [Medical-Biological and Socio-Psychological Problems of Safety in Emergency Situations]. 2013. N 1. Pp. 66–73.



Vorobieva V.V., Zarubina I.V., Shabanov P.D. Metabolicheskie protektory v kompleksnom lechenii otravlenii fosfororganicheskimi soedineniyami [Metabolic protectors in complex therapy of organophosphate intoxications]
The Kirov Military Medical Academy (Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 6)
Воробьева Виктория Владимировна – PhD Med. Sci., lecturer, Pharmacology Department of the Kirov Military medical Academy (Russia, 194044, St. Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 6); e-mail: vvvorobeva@mail.ru;

Zarubina Irina Viktorovna – Dr. Biol. Sci. Prof., senior scientist, Pharmacology Department of the Kirov Military medical Academy (Russia, 194044, St. Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 6); e-mail: I.V.Zarubina@inbox.ru;



Shabanov Petr Dmitriyevich – Dr. Med. Sci. Prof., Head Department of Pharmacology of the Kirov Military Medical Academy (Russia, 194044, St. Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 6); e-mail: pdshabanov@mail.ru
Abstract. The purpose of investigation was to study defensive mechanisms of metaprot and ethomerzol (25 and 50 mg/kg) in a rat model of acute carbophos intoxication (256.0 ± 8.7) mg/kg. Both compounds recovered physical load tolerance, normalized the activity of aspartate and alanine transaminases, reduced bilirubine, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels. Effects on lipid peroxidation were reported as decreased malonic dialdehyde concentration and increased levels of reduced glutathione, as well as elimination of signs of endogenic intoxication. Antihypoxic, antioxidant, actoprotective, energotropic and reparative effects of metaprot and ethomerzol were proved.

Keywords: intoxications, OPs, carbophos, metaprot, ethomerzol, metabolic protectors.
References

  1. Aruin L.I. Novaya mezhdunarodnaya klassifikatsiya displazii slizistoi obolochki zheludka [The new international classification of dysplasia of the gastric mucosa]. Rossiiskii zhurnal gastroenterologii, gepatologii i koloproktologii [The Russian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Coloproctology]. 2002. N 12. Pp. 15–17. (In Russ.)

  2. Khaitov R.M., Ignat'eva G.A., Sidorovich I.G. Immunologiya [Immunology]. Moskva. 2000. 458 p. (In Russ.)

  3. Tsimmerman Ya.S. Gastroenterologiya [Gastroenterology]. Moskva. 2012. 800 p.

  4. Yarilin A.A. Immunologiya [Immunology]. Moskva. 2010. 749 p. (In Russ.)

  5. Blaser M.J. Helikobacter pylory and gastric disease. BMJ. 1998. Vol. 316, N 7143. Pp. 1507–1510.

  6. Guarner J., Baetlett J., Seitz R. [et al.]. Cell proliferation and inflammation on biopsy samples with multifocal atrophic gastritis before and 2 year after Helicobacter pylori eradication. Arch. Pathol. Lab Med. 2005. Vol. 129, N 11. Pp. 1451–1456.

  7. Ormerod M.G. [et al.]. Consensus report of the task force on standardization of DNA flow cytometry in clinical pathology. Anal. Cell Pathol. 1998. Vol. 17. Pp. 103–110.

  8. Correa P. The gastric precancerous process. Cancer Surv. 1983. Vol. 2. Pp. 437–450.

  9. Correa P. Human gastric cancerogenesis: a multistep and multifactorial process. Cancer rev. 1992. N 52. Pp. 6735–6740.

  10. Lu A.P., Zhang S.S/, Zha O.L. [et al.]. Correlatio between CD4,CD8 cell infiltration in gastric mucosa, H. pylori infection and symptoms in patients with chronic gastritis. Wold J. Gastroenterol. 2005. Vol. 28. Pp. 2486–2490.

  11. Shankey T.V., Rabinovitch P.S., Bagwell B. [et al.]. Guidelines for implementation of clinical DNA cytometry. Cytometry. 1993. Vol. 14. Pp. 472–477.

  12. Smythies L.E., Waites K.B., Lindsey J.R., Harris P.R. Helicobacter pylori–induced mucosal inflammation is TH-1 mediated and exacerbated in IL-4, but not IFN-gamma, genedeficient mice. J. Immunol. 2000. Vоl. 165. Pp. 1022–1029.

  13. Brajsa K., Ferencic Z., Katicic M. [et al]. Influence of H.pylori infection and eradication on p53, cerbB-2 and Ki-67 in gastric mucosa. Hepatogastroenterology. 2006 Vol. 53. Pp. 968– 972.

  14. Kovama S. Apoptotic depletion of infiltrating mucosal lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by H. pylori-infected gastric mucosal epithelium human glandular stomach as a site of immune privilege. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2000. Vol. 45. Pp. 773–780.

  15. Nagayo T. Precursors of human gastric cancer: their frequencies and histological characteristics: Pathophysiol. Carcinogenesis Dig. Org. Proc. 7th Int. Symp. Princess Takamatsu. Cancer Res. Fund. 1977. Рp. 151–160.

  16. Niimi C., Ohmiya N., Niwa Y. [et al.]. Use fullness of p53 and Ki-67 immunohistochemical analysis for preoperative diagnosis of extremely well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 2002. Vol. 118. Pp. 683–692.

Received 02.11.2012

Mediko-biologicheskie i sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie problemy bezopasnosti v chrezvychaynykh situatsiyakh [Medical-Biological and Socio-Psychological Problems of Safety in Emergency Situations]. 2013. N 1. Pp. 74–77.



Shevchenko T.I., Makarova N.V. Sravnitel'noe issledovanie nervno-psikhicheskoi ustoichivosti u pozharnykh, gornospasatelei i kursantov pozharno-spasatel'nogo kolledzha [Comparative study of neuropsychological resistance in firefighters, mine rescuers and students of a firefighting and rescue college]
The Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia

(Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2)


Shevchenko Tat'yana Ivanovna – PhD Psychol. Sci., research associate, The Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia (Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2); е-mail: registr@arcerm.spb.ru;

Makarova Natal'ya Vasil'evna – PhD Physical and Mathematical Sci., Head of Research Lab, the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia (Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2); е-mail: registr@arcerm.spb.ru


Abstract. We conducted a psychological survey of 221 professionals from Firefighting Service of St. Petersburg, 15 mine rescuers from the Federal State institution, Administration of military mine-rescue detachments in building industry and 28 students of a Firefighting and Rescue College named St. Petersburg Centre for Rescuers’ Training. Stress resistance decreased with aging of professionals. The risk group for deadaptation (category IV for neuropsychological resistance, NPR) included 26.7 % of mine rescuers and 0.9 % of firefighters. Against the background of relative psychological well-being of firefighters and rescuers, 17.9 % of students had low neuropsychological resistance. No significant correlation between NPR and work experience in firefighters and mine rescuers was revealed. In firefighters, a relationship between health and professional advancement, on the one hand, and NPR levels, on the other, was established according to expert appraisals.

Keywords: firefighters, mine rescuers, students, neuropsychological resistance, expert appraisals, performance efficacy.
References

1. Aleksandrovskii Yu.A. Sostoyaniya psikhicheskoi dezadaptatsii i ikh kompensatsiya [States of psychological maladjustment and their compensation]. Moskva. 1976. 272 p. (In Russ.)

2. Bulka A.P. Sistema organizatsii psikhologicheskikh meropriyatii v vooruzhennykh silakh Rossiiskoi Federatsii [The system of organization of psychological interventions in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation]. Sankt-Peterburg. 2011. 46 p. (In Russ.)

3. Lebedev V.I. Lichnost' v ekstremal'nykh usloviyakh [Individual in extreme conditions]. Moskva. 1989. 304 p. (In Russ.)

4. Marishchuk V.L., Evdokimov V.I. Povedenie i samoregulyatsiya cheloveka v usloviyakh stressa [Human behavior and self-control under stress]. Sankt-Peterburg. 2001. 259 p. (In Russ.)

5. Yusupov V.V., Kuzina R.Kh., Evdokimov V.I. [et al.]. Otsenka psikhicheskoi adaptatsii voennosluzhashchikh-zhenshchin k osobym usloviyam deyatel'nosti [Evaluation of mental adaptation of military women to the special conditions of activity]. Vestnik psikhoterapii [Bulletin of Psychotherapy]. 2007. N 23. Pp. 143–147. (In Russ.)

6. Pavlov I.P. Eksperimental'naya patologiya vysshei nervnoi deyatel'nosti [Experimental pathology of higher nervous activity]. Moskva. 1988. 244 p. (In Russ.)

7. Prikladnaya sotsial'naya psikhologiya [Applied Social Psychology]. Eds.: A.N. Sukhov, A.A. Derkach. Moskva; Voronezh. 1998. 688 p. (In Russ.)

8. Shevchenko T.I. Osobennosti emotsional'nykh sostoyanii sotrudnikov gosudarstvennoi protivopozharnoi sluzhby MChS Rossii [Features of the emotional states of employees of the State Fire Service of Russia Emercom]. Sankt-Peterburg. 2007. 19 p. (In Russ.)

Received 08.10.2012

Mediko-biologicheskie i sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie problemy bezopasnosti v chrezvychaynykh situatsiyakh [Medical-Biological and Socio-Psychological Problems of Safety in Emergency Situations]. 2013. N 1. Pp. 77–82.

Tulupeva T.V., Tulupev A.L., Azarov A.A. Psikhologicheskie aspekty otsenki bezopasnosti informatsii v kontekste sotsioinzhenernykh atak [Psychological aspects of information security estimates in the context of socio-engineering attacks]
Saint-Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Russia, 199178, Saint-Petersburg, Line 14, 39);

Saint-Petersburg State University (Russia, 199034, Saint-Petersburg, University embankment, 7/9)


Tulupeva Tat'yana Valentinovna – PhD Psychol. Sci., senior research associate, Saint-Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation (Russia, 199178, Saint-Petersburg, Line 14, 39);

Tulupev Aleksandr L'vovich – Dr. Physical and Mathematical Sci. Prof., Informatics Department, Saint-Petersburg State University (Russia, 199034, Saint-Petersburg, University embankment, 7/9); е-mail: www.tulupyev.spb.ru;

Azarov Artur Aleksandrovich – junior research associate, Saint-Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation (Russia, 199178, Saint-Petersburg, Line 14, 39)
Abstract. Complex corporate information systems are widely distributed in the modern world. Development, support and protection of similar systems require a significant amount of time and resources, besides only highly skilled experts can be engaged in similar systems. Information stored in such information systems has a huge value for the companies owing these systems; therefore, considerable efforts are spent to protect them from various threats. The purpose of this article is the combination of an indistinct and likelihood approach to an assessment of user immunity against ill-minded attacks; rather elementary ("one movement") actions aimed at "elementary" vulnerabilities of the user are considered. Influence on these vulnerabilities directly leads to some user’s response.

Keywords: socio-engineering attack, informational system, user, vulnerabilities profile, information security.
References

1. Azarov A.A., Tulupeva T.V., Filchenkov A.A., Tulup'ev A.L. Veroyatnostno-relyatsionnyi podkhod k predstavleniyu modeli kompleksa «Informatsionnaya sistema – personal – kritichnye dokumenty» [Probabilistic relational approach to presenting complex model of "Information system – staff – critical documents"]. Trudy SPIIRAN [SPIIRAS proceedings]. 2012. N 1. Pp. 57–71. (In Russ.)

2. Granovskaya R.M. Elementy prakticheskoi psikhologii [Elements of applied psychology]. Sankt-Peterburg. 2003. 560 p. (In Russ.)

3. Granovskaya R.M., Nikol'skaya I.M. Zashchita lichnosti: psikhologicheskie mekhanizmy [Identity protection: psychological mechanisms]. Sankt-Peterburg. 1999. 507 p. (In Russ.)

4. Vanyushicheva O.Yu., Tulupeva T.V., Pashchenko A.E., Tulupev A.L. Klassifikatsiya psikhologicheskikh osobennostei, sostavlyayushchikh osnovu uyazvimostei pol'zovatelya pri ugroze sotsioinzhenernykh atak [Classification of psychological characteristics that form the basis of user’s vulnerabilities under the threat of social engineering attacks]. Trudy SPIIRAN [SPIIRAS proceedings]. 2011. N 2. Pp. 70–99. (In Russ.)

5. Kuznetsov M., Simdyanov I., Sotsial'naya inzheneriya i sotsial'nye khakery [Social engineering and social hackers]. Sankt-Peterburg. 2007. 368 p. (In Russ.)

6. Mitnik K. D., Saimon V. L. Iskusstvo obmana [The Art of Deception]. Moskva. 2004. 360 p. (In Russ.)

7. Ob informatsii, informatizatsii i zashchite informatsii : federal'nyi zakon ot 10.01.2003 N 15-FZ [On information, informatization and information protection (Federal law of 10.01.2003 N 15-FZ)]. Moskva. 2005. 32 p. (In Russ.)

8. Tulupev A.L., Tulupeva T.V., Grigoreva O.Yu., Azarov A.A. Psikhologicheskie osobennosti personala, predraspolagayushchie k uspeshnoi realizatsii sotsioinzhenernykh atak [Psychological characteristics of staff, predisposing to the successful implementation of social engineering attacks]. Nauchnye trudy Severo-Zapadnogo instituta upravleniya Rossiiskoi akademii narodnogo khozyaistva i gosudarstvennoi sluzhby pri Prezidente Rossiiskoi Federatsii (RANKhiGS) [Scientific works of Northwestern's Institute for Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (RANKhiGS)]. 2012. Vol. 3, issue 3. Pp. 256–266. (In Russ.)

9. Filippov G.G. Opyt klassifikatsii tekhnologii sotsial'nogo manipulirovaniya. Upravlencheskoe konsul'tirovanie [Experience of classifying technologies for social manipulation. Management consulting]. Aktual'nye problemy gosudarstvennogo i munitsipal'nogo upravleniya [Public Administration Issues]. 2011. N 1. Pp. 112–122. (In Russ.)

10. Sheinov V.P. Skrytoe upravlenie chelovekom (psikhologi manipulirovaniya) [Invisible man management (psychologists of manipulation]. Moskva ; Minsk. 2001. 848 p. (In Russ.)

Received 18.01.2013


Mediko-biologicheskie i sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie problemy bezopasnosti v chrezvychaynykh situatsiyakh [Medical-Biological and Socio-Psychological Problems of Safety in Emergency Situations]. 2013. N 1. Pp. 82–86.



Granovskaya R.M. Sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie prichiny stoikosti zhitelei blokadnogo Leningrada (1941–1944) [Socio-psychological causes of firmness in residents of besieged Leningrad (1941–1944)]
The Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia

(Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2)


Granovskaya Rada Mikhailovna – Dr. Psychol. Sci. Prof., The Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia (Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2); e-mail: rada-gran@yandex.ru
Abstract. Personal recollections of a teenage girl, now the Doctor of Psychology, Professor, about life in the Leningrad besieged by German fascists (1941–1944) are presented. Socio-psychological causes of firmness in residents of besieged Leningrad are analyzed.

Keywords: Great Patriotic War (1941–1945), Leningrad siege, attitudes, moral values.
References

1. Budni Podviga: blokadnaya zhizn' leningradtsev v dnevnikakh, risunkakh, dokumentakh, 08.09.1941 – 27.01.1944 [Everyday Glory: the blockade life of Leningrad in diaries, drawings, documents, 09.08.1941 – 27.01.1944]. Ed. V.M. David. Sankt-Peterburg. 2006. 301 p. (In Russ.)

2. Kutuzov A.V. Moral'noe sostoyanie grazhdan v Leningrade vysochaishego kachestva. Blokada Leningrada i Velikobritanii: razlichiya i skhodstvo [The morale of the citizens in Leningrad of the highest quality. The Siege of Leningrad and the UK: differences and similarities]. Voenno-istoricheskii zhurnal [The journal of military history]. 2010. N 9. Pp. 50–52. (In Russ.)

3. Pyankevich V.L. Kazhdyi takoi listochek na stene byl krikom, voplem krainei bespomoshchnosti. Chastnye ob"yavleniya v blokadnom Leningrade [Each such leaf on the wall was screaming, yelling at helplessness. Private ads in besieged Leningrad]. Trudy istoricheskogo fakul'teta Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta [Proceedings of the historical faculty of St. Petersburg University]. 2011. N 5. Pp. 192–211. (In Russ.)

4. Shabalov N.P., Erman L.V. Detskoe zdravookhranenie blokadnogo Leningrada [Pediatric health in besieged Leningrad]. Detskaya meditsina Severo-Zapada [Children's Medicine in the Northwest]. 2010. Vol. 1, N 1. Pp. 78–80. (In Russ.)

5. Yarov S.V. Nravstvennye normy blokadnogo Leningrada [Moral norms of besieged Leningrad]. Vestnik akademii prava i upravleniya [Bulletin of the Academy of law and management]. 2011. N 23. Pp. 203–213. (In Russ.)

Received 04.02.2013

Mediko-biologicheskie i sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie problemy bezopasnosti v chrezvychaynykh situatsiyakh [Medical-Biological and Socio-Psychological Problems of Safety in Emergency Situations]. 2013. N 1. Pp. 87–94.



Slabinsky V.Yu., Voischeva N.M., Evdokimov V.I. Professional'noe vygoranie u pozharnykh (po dannym zarubezhnykh issledovanii, 2006–2012) [Burnout syndrome among firefighters (according to data from foreign studies, 2006–2012)]
North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov

(Russia, 191015, Saint-Petersburg, Kirochnaya st. 41);

Saint Petersburg State University (Russia, 199034, Saint-Petersburg, University Embankment, 7/9);

The Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia

(Russia, 194044, Saint-Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2)
Slabinskii Vladimir Yur'evich – PhD Med. Sci., associate professor, Psychotherapy Department, North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov (Russia, 191015, Saint-Petersburg, Kirochnaya st. 41); e-mail: slabinsky@mail.ru;

Voishcheva Nadezhda Mikhailovna – post-graduate student, Saint Petersburg State University (Russia, 199034, Saint-Petersburg, University Embankment, 7/9); e-mail: pdpspb@yandex.ru;

Evdokimov Vladimir Ivanovich – Dr. Med. Sci. Prof., Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, EMERCOM of Russia (Russia, 194044, St. Petersburg, Academica Lebedeva Str., 4/2); e-mail: 9334616@mail.ru
Abstract. Studies published in 2006-2012 in foreign scientific journals were analyzed in terms of the severity of burnout syndrome (BOS) in the firefighters and personnel of other emergency services. The total number of respondents was 8,071 people from 12 countries; in 92 % of cases, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used. The structure of professional and general stressors that increase BOS risk is provided. Factors affecting the BOS level in firefighters are summarized.

Keywords: burnout syndrome, firefighters, emergency services, stress, emotional tension.

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